Wal-Mart says Visa conspired with banks to illegally fix and inflate fees that retailers pay on card transactions.
The company says that the fees cost U.S. retailers and shoppers more than $350 billion between 2004 and November 2012.
The complaint was filed Tuesday with the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Arkansas.
Visa did not return a request for comment.
In December, a judge approved a settlement over card fees between 19 merchants and Visa and MasterCard (MA). Wal-Mart was not part of that group.
The settlement was originally valued at $7.25 billion but shrank to about $5.7 billion because some retailers opted out.