Kristen LaBrie is scheduled to appear in Salem Superior Court on Monday on charges of attempted murder, child endangerment and permitting bodily injury to a disabled person.
LaBrie's son, Jeremy, was 9 when he died in March. He had been diagnosed with leukemia in 2006.
Prosecutors say LaBrie canceled at least a dozen appointments for chemotherapy treatment and did not fill at least half the prescriptions her son had been given.
She had earlier been charged with child endangerment, and a grand jury returned the more serious indictment Friday. She was arrested Sunday night.