Biden told his predecessor, who has been a harsh critic of the Obama administration, to "get better soon" during the five-minute call, according to a Biden aide quoted by Politico.
The aide said the "very friendly and personal" call came after Biden spoke to Liz Cheney, the former vice president's daughter.
A statement from Cheney's office Tuesday revealed that the former vice president had suffered "a mild heart attack."
"He underwent a stress test and a heart catheterization," the statement said. "He is feeling good and is expected to be discharged in the next day or two."
Cheney, 69, has already had four other heart attacks. He has had quadruple bypass surgery and two artery-clearing angioplasties.