The officer did not turn in completed documents as expected Wednesday morning, said David Wyser, chief trial deputy for the Marion County prosecutor's office.
An Indiana State Police trooper arrested Rhodes, 28, about 3 a.m. Tuesday after he was stopped for driving a GMC truck 81 mph in a 55-mph zone on Interstate 65 in Indianapolis' far northwest side, authorities said. Rhodes was released on his own recognizance later in the day.
Rhodes, who becomes a free agent when his contract with the Colts expires Feb. 28, did not respond to a request for comment outside the courtroom.
His attorney, Jim Voyles, also had no comment.
"We'll say everything we need to say in court," Voyles said.
Rhodes was wearing a light gray suit and joined in the courtroom by a woman, but Voyles and others would not identify her.
Rhodes faces a class A misdemeanor. Penalties range from no jail time to one year behind bars, but a conviction on a first-time offense typically results in probation, a fine and substance abuse treatment, Wyser said.
Rhodes will be treated like any other first-time offender, Wyser said.
"People make mistakes and they have to be held accountable for them," Wyser said.
Colts President Bill Polian said Rhodes would be subject to NFL discipline under the substance abuse policy.
Rhodes has been in trouble with the law before. Following a 2002 domestic disturbance at his home, Rhodes pleaded innocent in Marion Superior Court to misdemeanor charges of battery and domestic battery.
Latrina Moore, who lived with Rhodes at the time and is the mother of a child with Rhodes, said the running back hit her and shoved her to the floor after she confronted him about other women calling their home, prosecutors said at the time.
Under an agreement with prosecutors, Rhodes was charged with domestic battery but avoided prosecution. Instead, Rhodes was placed in a diversionary program and underwent mental health counseling.
His latest arrest will not affect the 2002 case, Wyser said.
Rhodes delivered an MVP-like performance in the Super Bowl, rushing for more than 100 yards in the win over Chicago. Afterward, he was featured in a Disney World television commercial with coach Tony Dungy.
Rhodes started all 16 regular-season games in 2006, rushing for 641 yards and 5 touchdowns. He was Edgerrin James' backup since 2001 and had a chance to become the Colts featured back in 2006 but instead shared the job with rookie Joseph Addai.
The six-year veteran has rushed for 2,274 yards in his career.