Malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue fever and West Nile virus are likely to become more prevalent as our planet gets warmer. Higher temperatures allow mosquitoes to proliferate more, making it easier for the diseases to spread.
Malaria is one of the most serious health threats worldwide, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In 2012, malaria caused about 207 million clinical cases, and 627,000 deaths worldwide. About 90 percent of the deaths occurred in Africa, the World Health Organization reports.
A study published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives in 2014 found that rising temperatures may contribute to dehydration and the growing prevalence of kidney stones in the U.S. The painful condition currently sends about half a million Americans to the ER each year.
"Kidney stone prevalence has already been on the rise over the last 30 years, and we can expect this trend to continue, both in greater numbers and over a broader geographic area, as daily temperatures increase," study author Dr. Gregory E. Tasian, a pediatric urologist and epidemiologist at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. "With some experts predicting that extreme temperatures will become the norm in 30 years, children will bear the brunt of climate change."
Heavy rainfall and flooding events that are becoming more prevalent with the changing climate increase the populations of nasty waterborne parasites, such as Cryptosporidium. Infections with these parasites can result in gastrointestinal symptoms and, in rare cases, even death, the EPA says.
Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi, carried by ticks. Experts say that rising temperatures are already increasing tick reproduction, which can affect the rate at which the disease is spreading.
"With the change in the temperature over the last, probably, 30 to 40 years, it has increased the rate of the tick reproduction -- so they are laying more eggs," Dr. Bernard Raxlen, a Lyme disease specialist in New York, told CBS News. Raxlen added that the predators that typically feed on the ticks are becoming more scarce, which makes it more likely that the tick population will increase.
Climate change is already affecting allergies in a way, as the spring pollen season in the U.S is occurring earlier than it used to, the EPA reports. The length of the allergy season may also have increased. Moreover, rising carbon dioxide concentrations and temperatures can increase the production of certain pollens, the agency says.
Asthma and lung diseases
Researchers estimate that warmer temperatures that come with climate change will increase the number of days with high levels of ground-level ozone, which can affect people's lung function and inflame airways, the EPA says. This can in turn worsen symptoms in asthma and lung disease patients. And some research has suggested that high ozone levels may in fact increase the likelihood of developing asthma.
Salmonella & other foodborne illness
Since foodborne bacteria grow more quickly in warm conditions, increasing global temperatures could raise the number of salmonella-related food poisoning cases, according to the EPA. The CDC estimates that, every year, salmonella causes about 1.2 million illnesses in the U.S, with about 23,000 hospitalizations and 450 deaths.
Researchers estimate that climate change will bring longer, more frequent and more severe heat waves in the summer, the EPA says. And more heat translates into more potential cases of heat stroke and other related health issues typically triggered by sweltering weather.
Heat waves kill more people, on average, than any other extreme weather event in the U.S., according to the CDC. Older people, young children and people with certain medical conditions such as heart, lung and kidney diseases are particularly vulnerable.