President Bush and Congress requested the tsunami plan after an earthquake on Dec. 26, 2004, caused a massive tsunami in the Indian Ocean. It killed or left missing more than 220,000 people in 11 Indian Ocean countries, and "demonstrated international vulnerability," said John Marburger, Mr. Bush's top science adviser.
"Tsunamis are low probability but high impact events," he said.
The tsunami rose a massive 30 feet. Sumatra was the hardest hit, losing some 128,000 people. But the great wave also traveled around the world, and was recorded as far away as Peru and northeastern Canada.
Marburger, who directs the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, said U.S.-led improvements in tsunami detection and warning since a year ago have made people safer at home and work, and the new plan will continue to reduce risks to life and property.
Specifically, the plan written by the president's National Science and Technology Council aims to:
In the past year, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration have led efforts to expand the U.S. tsunami detection network.
NOAA Administrator Conrad Lautenbacher has pushed to grow the network from six to now 10 tsunami buoys. Located off the Aleutian Islands, the Washington and Oregon coasts and South America, the buoys send warning signals if they sense a change in sea level.
That network was first developed more than a half-century ago. In 1946, a tsunami starting in the Aleutian Islands struck Hawaii, killing more than 150 people. In response came Hawaii's warning system and, in 1949, its Pacific Tsunami Warning Center.
More recently, NOAA has designated 24 U.S. coastal communities in Alaska, California, Florida, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington as "TsunamiReady." Those places have voluntarily developed emergency plans, with evacuation routes to a shelter outside the hazard zone.
NOAA also spent $4.6 million to improve warnings against tsunami and other hazards for India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Thailand and the Maldives. The U.S. Agency for International Development spent $656 million in humanitarian aid such as food and medical supplies, transportation and refugee assistance in the Indian Ocean region.