At least 14 people were killed in the southeastern coastal city of Wenzhou and another 31 in the inland province of Anhui, the official Xinhua News Agency reported, citing local officials.
Talim roared ashore Thursday, wrecking houses, damaging crops and roads and knocking out power and phone services.
Before it hit the mainland, the storm killed at least two people on Taiwan and injured 24 others.
Xinhua didn't give any more details of how the deaths occurred or the identities of the victims.
The storm knocked down 11,789 houses in Wenzhou in Zhejiang province and damaged homes in the Dabie Mountain area of Anhui, Xinhua said in separate reports.
Talim weakened to a tropical storm late Thursday and moved inland.
The local government in Wenzhou estimated losses at 3.4 billion yuan ($420 million), Xinhua said. It said crops were damaged in Anhui but didn't give a figure for economic losses there.
The storm forced the evacuation of nearly 1 million people in Zhejiang and neighboring Fujian province from low-lying coastal areas and mountain villages that are prone to flash floods.
Flooding cut power in the Fujian provincial capital of Fuzhou and forced schools to cancel classes. Highway travel was disrupted and some airline flights canceled.