So much for the stereotype of the older adult as an
isolated, sad hermit. Age and happiness may increase together, according to new
research that suggests many older adults are very happy as well as socially
The effects of older age on happiness are strong. Over a person's life span
an increase in happiness -- with some ups and downs along the way -- is the
rule, according to Yang Yang, PhD. Yang is assistant professor of sociology at
the University of Chicago and the author of the study evaluating happiness
among various age groups over a three-decade period.
Social connections are also common among older adults, found Benjamin
Cornwell, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow at the Center on Demography and Economics
of Aging at the University of Chicago and a researcher of a second study.
"Seniors are not isolated," he says. Rather, they are plugged in and
sociable; the 80-somethings in his study were more "plugged in"
socially than those in their late 50s.
Both studies are published in the April issue of the American
Age and Happiness Study
With age comes happiness, found Yang as she evaluated data from the General
Social Survey of the National Opinion Research Center, considered one of the
best sources of happiness data in the country.
From 1972 to 2004, those administering the survey asked a cross section of
more than 28,000 people the same question: "Taken all together, how would
you say things are these days -- would you say that you are very happy, pretty
happy, or not too happy?"
Among those 18 years old, 15% to 33% said they were very happy, with white
women most likely to be very happy, followed by white men, African-American
women, and African-American men.
Among the 80-year-olds, about half were very happy.
Among all those surveyed, baby boomers, born from 1946 to 1964, were least
happy, with just 32% saying they were very happy.
Seniors and Social Connections
In the second study, Cornwell found that older adults remain socially
active, and they sometimes beat out younger folks when it comes to social
interactions. His team evaluated the results of in-home interviews with 3,005
men and women, ages 57 to 85, none living in institutions, between July 2005
and March 2006. They were part of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging
Project, a project supported by the National Institutes of Health.
The survey respondents were asked to list how many people they knew with
whom they could discuss important matters, and then to tell how often they
engaged in socializing with neighbors, attending religious services,
volunteering, or being involved with organized groups.
The average "network" size was 3.6 people; older people are less
likely to have larger networks because of retirement or the death of friends
and family members.
But the older adults stayed socially connected. About three-fourths of the
older adults participate in at least one of those activities at least weekly,
Cornwell tells WebMD. "This is a pretty impressive level of social
connectedness, we thought," he says. "The real surprise here is that
it's the oldest adults in this age group -- seniors in their 70s and early 80s
-- who were most engaged in their community compared to those in their 50s and
The older respondents, in fact, were twice as likely to be engaged in the
Why Seniors Stay Connected
One of the reasons for increased social activities among those in their 70s
and 80s could be simply that seniors are out of the work force and have more
leisure time, Cornwell says.
But Cornwell thinks the better interpretation is their adaptability. They
may be showing their resistance to the isolation brought on by loss of a spouse
or friends to death, he says. "It's an attempt to go back out and recapture
a sense of belonging and connctedness to others."
People in their 70s and 80s, Cornwell says, "enjoy being in the
community, and I think that's an important image. If people hold that in their
mind, I think it would change the way we view old age."
Second Opinions: Age and Happiness, Social Connections
One strength of the Yang study is that it used sophisticated statistical
methods to separate out what scientists call the "cohort" effect -- how
what happened during the era in which you grew up affects you and your
happiness, says Tom W. Smith, PhD, director of the General Social Survey at the
National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago.
Smith was not involved in her study but is familiar with the results.
"If you think old people become depressed and grumpy, the good news is: no
they don't," he says, adding, "We're talking about averages, and there
are always ups and downs."
The study results on happiness make perfect sense, says Barbara Becker
Holstein, PhD, a psychologist in Long Branch, N.J. With age, she notices,
people's expectations become much more realistic. "The pressure from
careers has dissipated. Older people can be in the moment, be in real time and
Both studies help dispel age stereotypes, says Adam Davey, PhD, associate
professor of psychology at Temple University. "I think the stereotype is we
get older, sicker, lonelier, more depressed."
To stay happy and socially engaged, Davey tells people to retain novelty in
their lives by pushing beyond their comfort zone and trying new things. "I
think the novelty sustains adaptability and the more adaptable, the better off
we are long term.'' The more people seek out new experiences, he says, the more
active and engaged they remain.
By Kathleen Doheny
Reviewed by Louise Chang
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