Stem Cell Cures Any Closer?

Stem Cells

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Twelve years after the discovery of the human embryonic stem cell, research is finally picking up steam. Over the past 7 years, the National Institutes of Healthhave almost tripled its investment in stem cell research to more than $1 billion.

CBS News medical correspondent Dr. Jon LaPook reports the number of embryonic stem cell lines funded by the government has doubled - from 21 to 44 today. More than 200 U.S. companies are researching stem cells. So the report card on stem cell research is promising -- but incomplete.

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Two years ago, scientists found another way to create stem cells from ordinary skin cells. That breakthrough lets researchers study diseases in a dish. For example, skin cells from a patient with ALShave been turned into the kind of nerve cells attacked by the disease. For the first time, those living nerves can be studied - outside the body - to figure out what goes wrong.

"It's amazing," said CBS Reports: Where America StandsOnce researchers figure out what goes wrong in diseases, they can test drugs in the safety of a petri dish before trying them on patients."We're building foundations right now, so the science is moving along very well," Goldstein said. The Problem The problem? How to harness the tantalizing potential of stem cells. No one knows that better than Dr. John Kessler.Nine years ago, a phone call changed his life forever. His 15-year-old daughter Allison was paralyzed from the waist down in a skiing accident.

"It was a moment of despair," Kessler said. "It was a moment of knowing what I faced - what my daughter faced."

He knew because he's a neurologist and is now a leader in the field. He's turned stem cells into nerves and helped heal animals with spinal injury.

"Is this a cure for spinal cord injury? No," Kessler said. "This is not yet a cure for spinal cord injury. Do we think that its very likely this will help people? We think so."

Today, Allison is an outgoing 25-year-old. Her father's greatest wish is that one day his work will help her walk again.

"If there is a cure to find at this day and age with current science - he's the one who is going to push the envelope," Allison said.

Allison is in medical school now, and has moved on with her life. Her father however said he'll "never get over it, never."

The Solution

The solution can't come fast enough for patients desperate for help now.

Later this year, Dr. Catriona Jamieson

Stem cells are normally present throughout our bodies and help us replace worn-out cells. But these normal stem cells can produce cancer stem cells that create regular cancer cells and tumors. While chemotherapy kills regular cancer cells as they divide, cancer stem cells survive by lying dormant, then springing to life and causing relapse.

"Getting rid of the most robust cell within the cancer that has the capacity to regenerate the whole cancer is how to really expunge the whole cancer and make sure that people don't relapse," Jamieson said.

This new approach may have saved Theresa Blanda's life. In 2008, tests showed she was close to developing leukemia. Eighteen months ago, she enrolled in a clinical trial using a drug that Jamieson and her team developed. It attacks cancer stem cells in her blood - now she's back to a normal life.

"I don't think I imagined myself sitting here, period," Blanda said.

Even if everything goes right, stem-cell based treatments are still years away. But this may be one of those rare instances in medicine when the hype is actually deserved.

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  • Jon Lapook
    Jonathan LaPook

    Dr. Jonathan LaPook is the chief medical correspondent for CBS News. Follow him on Twitter at @DrLaPook