Prosecutors had charged the men last month with planning the attack, which was to use mortars, rocket-propelled grenades and guns. The assault never took place.
The suspects, all foreign-born and in their 20s, have been held without bail in a federal detention center since they were arrested May 7. They will be able to enter pleas at an arraignment this week or next.
Mohamad Ibrahim Shnewer, Serdar Tatar and the brothers Dritan, Eljvir and Shain Duka are charged in the indictment with conspiring to kill military personnel, which is punishable by life in prison.
Dritan and Shain Duka also are charged with possession of machine guns, and all three Duka brothers are charged with possession of weapons by illegal immigrants.
A sixth man, Agron Abdullahu, is charged with providing weapons to illegal immigrants, punishable by up to 10 years in prison.
Investigators zeroed in on the men after a Circuit City store clerk told the FBI about footage of them firing assault weapons and screaming about jihad on a video they asked him to transfer to DVD.