The Senate first voted 63-34 to make English the national language after lawmakers who led the effort said it would promote national unity.
But critics argued the move would prevent limited English speakers from getting language assistance required by an executive order enacted under President Clinton. So the Senate also voted 58-39 to make English the nation's "common and unifying language." As CBS News correspondent Joie Chen reports, the Senate bill would not change things too much, though it gets at the core of the fight over immigrant rights.
"We are trying to make an assimilation statement," said Sen. Lindsey Graham, R-S.C., one of two dozen senators who voted Thursday for both English proposals.
White House spokesman Tony Snow said Friday that President Bush supports both measures.
"What the president has said all along is that he wants to make sure that people who become American citizens have a command of the English language," Snow said. "It's as simple as that."
Sen. Jim Inhofe, R-Okla., disputed charges that making English the national language was racist or aimed at Spanish speakers. Eleven Democrats voted for his measure.
Sen. Ken Salazar, D-Colo, offered the alternative. The only Republican to vote solely for Salazar's "common and unifying" language option was Sen. Pete Domenici of New Mexico, whose home state's constitution prohibits discrimination on basis of inability to speak, read or write English or Spanish.
Both provisions will be included in an immigration bill the Senate is expected to pass and send to conference with the House, where differences will be resolved.
According to a new CBS News poll, immigration now ranks among the top issues when Americans are asked to volunteer the most important problem facing the country; it trails only the war in Iraq and the economy and jobs. Twelve percent mention immigration the highest ever in the CBS News Poll.
Mr. Bush toured an unfortified section of the border in the Arizona desert Thursday, where he endorsed using fences and other barriers to cut down on illegal crossings. The Senate on Wednesday voted to put 370 miles of fences on the border.
Earlier, Bush spokesman Tony Snow told reporters that the White House supported the Senate measure, which would build 370 miles of fence in areas "most often used by smugglers and illegal aliens" as determined by federal officials.
"We don't think you fence off the entire border," Snow said aboard Air Force One en route to the inspection visit. But, he added, "there are places when fences are appropriate."
When Mr. Bush was asked whether he supports the House or Senate fencing proposal, he was not as direct as his spokesman. "Whatever works," Mr. Bush told Fox. "And that's why I'm down here talking to these commanders on the ground to find out exactly what they need to get the job done."
Despite his uncertain stance on the fence issue, most Americans say in the CBS News poll that they
Sixty-two percent favor the president's plan to station up to 6,000 National Guard troops at the U.S.-Mexico border, while 32 percent are opposed.
Six in 10 also support the idea of allowing foreign workers to work in the U.S. on a temporary basis and then return to their home country – a guest worker program, thealso shows. Majorities of Democrats and Independents, as well as Republicans support both these proposals.
Mr. Bush's border visit was part of his efforts to win over conservatives balking at his support for a path to citizenship for illegal immigrants and a new guest worker program.
The president's support for a path to citizenship has the support of 77% of Americans, the CBS News poll shows, at least for those who have been in the U.S. for at least five years and if they meet the following criteria: they pay a fine, pay any back taxes owed, can speak English, and have no criminal record.
Mr. Bush asked Congress forto pay for 1,000 Border Patrol agents and the temporary deployment of up to 6,000 National Guard troops to states along the Mexican border.
His request was not warmly welcomed by some key senators.
Sen. Judd Gregg, chairman of the Senate Budget Committee, delayed a vote on Mr. Bush's promotion of U.S. Trade Representative Rob Portman to White House budget director to show his displeasure. He said Mr. Bush's request calls for using money for proposed for border security equipment to pay for operational exercises.
Sen. Robert Byrd, the Senate Appropriations Committee's top Democrat, complained that he had offered amendments providing for border security nine times since 2002, only to have the Bush administration reject them as extraneous spending or expanding the size of government.
"If we had spent that money beginning in 2002, we would not be calling on the National Guard today," Byrd said.
The White House's support for the plan approved Wednesday by the Senate showed how eager Mr. Bush is to win over Republican conservatives who want to take a tough approach toward keeping illegal immigrants out.
Many House Republicans said Mr. Bush's plan amounts to amnesty, and even a visit to the Capitol by the president's political guru Karl Rove didn't change their minds, reports CBS News senior White House correspondent Bill Plante.
Told by Plante that Rove was "all but shown the door" by Congress, the president remained unfazed.
"Let's let the process work," Mr. Bush said. "My job is to find that common sense way forward and continue to articulate it."
Mr. Bush also told Plante that he understands the frustration. "It's an issue that brings out emotion. People want our border secure, but we got to make sure we treat people with respect and dignity," he says.
Meanwhile, a bipartisan coalition of lawmakers supporting the immigration measure continued to hold through the week. The group was able to reverse an amendment that denied temporary workers the ability to petition on their own for legal permanent residency, a step to citizenship.
Bill supporters restored the self-petitioning with the condition the federal government certifies American workers were unavailable to fill the jobs held or sought by the temporary workers.