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Saying Goodbye To The Greats

032902, story image, Milton Berle, Billy Wilder, Dudley Moore, JM
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Harold Russell didn't set out to become an actor, but he moved millions of moviegoers to tears as the veteran struggling to cope with the loss of his hands in "The Best Years of Our Lives." He had lost his hands in an accidental explosion while training troops in 1944.

Russell — who won both a special Oscar and the regular best supporting actor Oscar in 1947 — was one of the remarkable figures in the world of arts and entertainment who died in 2002.

Television wouldn't have been the same without Milton Berle, "Mr. Television" himself; "Today" and "Tonight" creator Sylvester "Pat" Weaver; and TV Guide founder Walter Annenberg. Peggy Lee and Rosemary Clooney showed everyone how the interpretation of popular songs could be an art form. Billy Wilder's films were incomparable, whether comedies ("Some Like It Hot") or dramas ("Witness for the Prosecution.")

Stephen E. Ambrose, the historian whose books about World War II made aging veterans hometown heroes again, died in 2002. So did Lionel Hampton, whose showmanship and skill made him the king of the vibraphone.

There were those whose works were more famous than their names. The man who wrote "Don't Be Cruel." The woman who created the impish heroine Pippi Longstocking. The men who wrote two very different best-sellers about the sea, "A Night To Remember" and "Kon-Tiki." Two members from the Funk Brothers — the brilliant but unheralded studio musicians who were the backbone of the Motown sound.

Here, a roll call of arts and entertainment figures we lost in 2002.

JANUARY:

Julia Phillips, 57. First woman to win a best picture Oscar, for co-producing "The Sting" in 1974; author of a famously scandalous Hollywood memoir. Jan. 1. Cancer.

Igor Cassini, 87. As the gossip columnist "Cholly Knickerbocker," he proclaimed future first lady Jacqueline Bouvier as "debutante of the year." Jan. 5.

Avery Schreiber, 66. Comedian who with his partner Jack Burns was a television fixture in the 1960s. Jan. 7.

Bill McCutcheon, 77. He won a Tony for portraying gangster Moonface Martin in the 1988 revival of "Anything Goes." Jan. 9.

John Buscema, 74. Comic book artist; drew Conan the Barbarian for more than 25 years. Jan. 10.

Ernest Pintoff, 70. His animated satire about modern art, "The Critic," won an Oscar in 1963. Jan. 12.

Ted Demme, 38. Director whose credits included the drug drama "Blow." Jan. 13. Heart attack.

Ron Taylor, 49. He created and starred in the hit Broadway musical "It Ain't Nothin' but the Blues." Jan. 16. Apparent heart attack.

Camilo Jose Cela, 85. Spanish novelist who won the 1989 Nobel Prize for literature for works such as "The Family of Pascual Duarte." Jan. 17.

John Jackson, 77. Noted country blues musician. Jan. 20.

Carrie Hamilton, 38. Actress and writer who sometimes collaborated with her mother, Carol Burnett. Jan. 20. Cancer.

Peggy Lee, 81. The sultry singer who could heat up the room with hits like "Fever," "Why Don't You Do Right?" and "Is That All There Is?" Jan. 21.

Jean Patchett, 75. Fashion model whose face — with a trademark mole — was one of the most recognizable of the 1950s. Jan. 22.

Igor Kipnis, 71. Harpsichordist who recorded more than 80 albums, playing music from baroque to pop. Jan. 23.

Astrid Lindgren, 94. Swedish writer whose freethinking character Pippi Longstocking is cherished by youngsters around the world. Jan. 28.

Michael Hammond, 69. Chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts. Jan. 29.

Harold Russell, 88. He received two Oscars for his sensitive portrayal of a wounded veteran in "The Best Years of Our Lives" after losing his hands in World War II. Jan. 29.

FEBRUARY:

Hildegard Knef, 76. Actress who starred in Germany's first post-World War II movie and appeared on Broadway in "Silk Stockings." Feb. 1.

Irish McCalla, 73. She was television's "Sheena, Queen of the Jungle." Feb. 1.

Claude Brown, 64. His 1965 best-seller, "Manchild in the Promised Land," told of his violent childhood on the streets of Harlem. Feb. 2.

James Blackwood, 82. The last founding member of the Blackwood Brothers Quartet, giants of Southern gospel music. Feb. 3.

George Nader, 80. Beefcake actor who appeared in campy films including the 1953 bad-movie classic "Robot Monster." Feb. 4.

David Cogan, 78. He co-produced Lorraine Hansberry's "A Raisin in the Sun" in 1959; first Broadway production by a black playwright. Feb. 7.

Nick Brignola, 65. Noted jazz saxophonist. Feb. 8.

Diana Gaines, 89. She wrote several popular rags-to-riches novels including "Tasker Martin." Feb. 8.

Dave Van Ronk, 65. Guitarist and singer who was at the forefront of the Greenwich Village folk boom. Feb. 10.

Waylon Jennings, 64. His rebellious songs and brash attitude defined the outlaw movement in country music. Feb. 13.

Pauline Trigere, 93. Fashion designer known for her impeccable tailoring of women's suits and coats. Feb. 13.

Howard K. Smith, 87. Esteemed newscaster; one of "Murrow's Boys" on CBS Radio in World War II, later ABC co-anchor and analyst. Feb. 15.

Carol Fenner, 72. Children's book writer-illustrator; won Newbery Honor Award for the 1995 book "Yolanda's Genius." Feb. 16.

James B. McKenzie, 75. Producer responsible for more than 20 plays that went on to Broadway, including the Tony-winning "And Miss Reardon Drinks a Little." Feb. 20.

John Thaw, 60. British actor who delighted TV audiences as the grumpy, music-loving detective "Inspector Morse." Feb. 21.

Chuck Jones, 89. Warner Bros. animator who helped give life to Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, the Road Runner and Wile E. Coyote. Feb. 22.

Milton "Mel" Stewart, 72. He played Archie Bunker's outspoken black neighbor Henry Jefferson on "All in the Family." Feb. 24.

Leo Ornstein, around 108. As a pianist and later a composer, he was a major figure on the modern-music scene in his youth. Feb. 24.

Lawrence Tierney, 82. Actor and B-movie leading man ("Dillinger") known for playing tough guys. Feb. 26.

Spike Milligan, 83. Much-loved British comedian, author, gadfly and the last surviving member of "The Goon Show." Feb. 27.

Mary Stuart, 75. She played Joanne Gardner Barron, the central character on the soap opera "Search for Tomorrow," from 1951 to 1986. Feb. 28.

MARCH:

Harlan Howard, 74. Songwriter whose country classics included the Patsy Cline hit "I Fall to Pieces" and the Grammy-winning "Busted" sung by Ray Charles. March 3.

Irene Worth, 85. Three-time Tony winner whose many classical roles ranged from the Greeks to Shakespeare to Chekhov and Shaw. March 10.

Carmine "Bud" Mennella, 80. Trainer for J. Fred Muggs, the chimpanzee sidekick on NBC's "Today" show in the 1950s. March 10.

Sylvester "Pat" Weaver, 93. He created NBC's "Today" and "Tonight" shows, brought opera to TV and shaped the way Americans watched the infant medium. March 15.

William Witney, 86. Director of dozens of Westerns and movie serials who won praise for his unpretentious style. March 17.

Rosetta LeNoire, 90. Actress in Orson Welles' landmark, all-black version of "Macbeth" in the 1930s and Grandma Winslow on television's "Family Matters." March 17.

Eileen Farrell, 82. Soprano who excelled as both an opera and pop in a string of successful recordings and performances. March 23.

Richard Sylbert, 73. Film production designer who Oscars for "Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?" and "Dick Tracy." March 23.

Richard Bradford, 70. Author of "Red Sky at Morning" about a boy's coming of age in northern New Mexico. March 23

Dorothy DeLay, 84. Juilliard School violin teacher whose students over a half-century included Itzhak Perlman and Midori. March 24.

Louis "Deke" Heyward, 81. Writer-producer who created "Winky Dink and You," a pioneering interactive TV show. March 26.

Billy Wilder, 95. Oscar-winning filmmaker whose gifts for writing and directing led to such classics as "Sunset Boulevard," "Some Like It Hot" and "Double Indemnity." March 27.

Milton Berle, 93. Acerbic, cigar-smoking vaudevillian who eagerly embraced a new medium and became "Mr. Television" when the technology was in its infancy. March 27.

Dudley Moore, 66. The cuddly Englishman who pined for Bo Derek in "10" and portrayed a lovably forlorn drunk in "Arthur." March 27.

Ed Turner, 66. As one of the first news professionals brought into CNN, he helped establish it as a major news organization. March 30.

Barry Took, 73. One of Britain's most famous comic writers who helped produce such shows as "Monty Python's Flying Circus." March 31.

APRIL:

John Agar, 81. Actor in many Westerns, including John Ford's "Fort Apache" and "She Wore a Yellow Ribbon"; once married to Shirley Temple. April 7.

Dorothy Love Coates, 74. Gospel songwriter whose music was recorded by stars including Johnny Cash and Ray Charles. April 9.

Rusty Burrell, 76. A retired sheriff's deputy who served as bailiff on TV's "The People's Court." April 15.

Robert Urich, 55. Emmy-winning actor best known as the tough-guy sleuths in "Vega$" and "Spenser: For Hire." April 16. Cancer.

Thor Heyerdahl, 87. Norwegian adventurer who crossed the Pacific on a balsa log raft in 1947 and detailed his harrowing 101-day voyage in the best-selling book "Kon-Tiki." April 18.

Layne Staley, 34. Singer, guitarist for Alice in Chains, one of the most prominent bands of the early '90s Seattle grunge scene. April 19. Drug overdose.

Reginald Rose, 81. Writer whose Emmy-winning teleplay "Twelve Angry Men" became an acclaimed film. April 19.

Linda Lovelace, 53. She became an unlikely star with the 1972 porn hit "Deep Throat" and later became a leading critic of the adult film industry. April 22. Car crash.

Lisa "Left Eye" Lopes, 30. The effervescent, sometimes volatile member of the top-selling, Grammy-winning trio TLC. April 25. Car crash.

Del Sharbutt, 90. A radio and television announcer who became one of the most familiar voices on the air. April 26.

Ruth Handler, 85. She co-founded the Mattel toy company and created Barbie, the world's most popular doll and an American icon. April 27.

MAY:

Livingston L. Biddle Jr., 83. As a congressional aide he helped create the National Endowment for the Arts and later was its chairman. May 3.

Martin Aronstein, 65. Five-time Tony Award nominee for theatrical design; credits include "Cactus Flower" and "Play It Again, Sam." May 3.

Michael Todd Jr., 72. A stepson of actress Elizabeth Taylor who produced the only feature film ever shot in Smell-o-Vision. May 5.

George Sidney, 85. He directed a string of hits for MGM in the 1940s and 1950s, including "Annie Get Your Gun" and "Show Boat." May 5.

Otis Blackwell, 70. Songwriter who wrote the signature hits "Don't Be Cruel" for Elvis Presley and "Great Balls of Fire" for Jerry Lee Lewis. May 6.

Kevyn Aucoin, 40. Makeup artist to a bevy of stars including Cindy Crawford, Janet Jackson and Britney Spears. May 7. Complications of a metabolic disorder.

Buster Brown, 88. Tap star; one of the last surviving members of the Copasetics, a legendary group of dancers. May 7.

David Riesman, 92. Author and sociologist whose million-selling 1950 book, "The Lonely Crowd," was quoted by everyone from teachers to Bob Dylan. May 10.

Yves Robert, 81. French actor-director whose 1972 hit "The Tall Blond Man with One Black Shoe" spoofed spy films. May 10.

Bill Peet, 87. Disney illustrator and writer who drew such characters as Dumbo and created the screenplay for "101 Dalmatians." May 11.

Dave Berg, 81. His Mad magazine strip "The Lighter Side of..." affectionately spoofed the human condition for more than 40 years. May 16.

Sharon Sheeley, 62. Songwriter who as a teenager wrote the 1958 Rick Nelson hit "Poor Little Fool." May 17.

Walter Lord, 84. His 1955 best-seller, "A Night To Remember," thrilled readers with its minute-by-minute retelling of the Titanic tragedy. May 19.

Stephen Jay Gould, 60. Paleontologist and author who eloquently demystified science for the public and challenged his colleagues with revolutionary ideas about evolution. May 20. Cancer.

Jerry Dunphy, 80. Leading TV news anchor in Southern California for more than 40 years. May 20.

Niki de Saint Phalle, 71. French sculptor best known for her colorful figures of women. May 21.

Faye Dancer, 77. A star of the All American Girls Professional Baseball League, she inspired the "All the Way Mae" character in "A League of Their Own." May 22.

Joe Cobb, 85. The cheerful, chubby boy in dozens of the "Our Gang" comedy films of the 1920s. May 21.

Mildred Wirt Benson, 96. The author who created Nancy Drew, girl sleuth, and inspired generations of young women with the teenage heroine's spunk, independence and resourcefulness. May 28.

Lois Gould, 70. Her semiautobiographical 1970 novel "Such Good Friends" told of a woman dealing with her husband's infidelity. May 29.

JUNE:

Lew Wasserman, 89. One of the last old-time movie moguls who helped build an entertainment empire while keeping company with presidents and the most glittering of Hollywood stars. June 3.

Dee Dee Ramone, 50. Bass player for the pioneer punk band the Ramones. June 5. Heroin overdose.

Holly Solomon, 68. New York art dealer famous for championing the untried — and being the subject of a portrait by Andy Warhol. June 6.

Signe Hasso, 86. Swedish actress whose career included nearly two dozen Hollywood movies such as 1943's "Heaven Can Wait." June 7.

Bill Blass, 79. American designer who shattered the Paris-centric fashion world with creations that mixed chic with casual. June 12.

Robert Whitehead, 86. One of Broadway's most prolific producers of serious drama, including "Member of the Wedding" and "Bus Stop." June 15.

J. Carter Brown, 67. He headed the National Gallery for 23 years and oversaw the development of the Vietnam Memorial. June 17.

Ann Landers, 83. The columnist whose snappy, plainspoken and timely advice helped millions of readers deal with everything from birth to death. June 22.

Dolores Gray, 78. She won a Tony award in 1954 for best musical actress in "Carnival in Flanders." June 26.

Timothy White, 50. Influential editor in chief of Billboard. June 27. Apparent heart attack.

John Entwistle, 57. The quiet, efficient bass player who helped make The Who one of the most dynamic rock bands in history. June 27. Heart attack caused by cocaine.

Rosemary Clooney, 74. The mellow-voiced singer who co-starred with Bing Crosby in "White Christmas" and staged a dramatic career comeback. June 29.

Howard Richard "Pistol" Allen, 69. Motown drummer and Funk Brothers member who supplied the backbeat on the Supremes' "Baby Love" and Martha and the Vandellas' "Heat Wave." June 30.

JULY:

Katy Jurado, 78. Mexican actress who shone in "High Noon" and gained an Academy Award nomination for "Broken Lance." July 5.

Harold "Duke" Dejan, 93. His Olympia Brass Band appeared weekly at the French Quarter's Preservation Hall and was a fixture in New Orleans jazz funeral processions. July 5.

John Frankenheimer, 72. Director of such Hollywood classics as "The Manchurian Candidate" and "Birdman of Alcatraz." July 6.

Lore Noto, 79. Producer who kept "The Fantasticks" alive off-Broadway for more than four decades. July 8.

Ward Kimball, 88. Animator who became one of Walt Disney's trusted "Nine Old Men," developed or refined such characters as Mickey Mouse and Jiminy Cricket. July 8.

Rod Steiger, 77. Stocky, intense actor who played Marlon Brando's hoodlum brother in "On the Waterfront" and won an Oscar as a Southern police chief in "In the Heat of the Night." July 9.

Yousuf Karsh, 93. Giant of photography best known for his 1941 portrait of a defiant Winston Churchill. July 13.

Jack Olsen, 77. A former sheriff's deputy who won awards for his true-crime novels such as "Doc: The Rape of the Town of Lovell." July 16.

Harry Gerstad, 93. Academy Award-winning film editor for "Champion" and "High Noon." July 17.

Seymour Solomon, 80. Co-founder of Vanguard Records, a label that dominated American folk music with stars such as Joan Baez. July 18.

Alan Lomax, 87. Celebrated musicologist who helped preserve America's and the world's heritage by making thousands of recordings of folk, blues and jazz musicians. July 19.

Dave Carter, 49. Fast-rising star of contemporary folk music. July 19. Apparent heart attack.

Clark Gesner, 64. Brought "Peanuts" to the stage in 1967 with the musical "You're a Good Man Charlie Brown." July 23.

Chaim Potok, 73. Author whose Orthodox upbringing inspired "The Chosen" and other best-selling novels that explored the clash between religious and secular life. July 23.

Leo McKern, 82. Actor who gained fame as a curmudgeonly British barrister in the television series "Rumpole of the Bailey" and was a foil to the Beatles in "Help!" July 23.

Frank Inn, 86. He trained some of Hollywood's biggest animal stars, including the dog Benji. July 27.

Ron Walotsky, 58. Science fiction artist whose work was featured on about 500 book covers, including "Carrie" by Stephen King. July 29.

AUGUST:

Roy Kral, 80. Half of the jazz duo Jackie and Roy. Aug. 2.

Joshua Ryan Evans, 20. The 3-foot-2 actor played Timmy the living doll on the NBC soap "Passions." Aug. 5. Cause not disclosed; he had rare disease that stunted his growth.

Matt Robinson, 65. He played the kindly neighbor Gordon on "Sesame Street." Aug. 5.

Chick Hearn, 85. Los Angeles Lakers play-by-play announcer for 42 years, he made phrases like "slam dunk" and "air ball" common basketball expressions. Aug. 5.

Peter Matz, 73. Emmy- and Grammy-winning composer and arranger who had a long association with Barbra Streisand. Aug. 9.

Galen Rowell, 61, and Barbara Rowell, 54. Renowned nature photographers whose works glorifying the American West appeared in top publications. Aug. 11. Plane crash.

Ed Headrick, 78. Father of the modern Frisbee and designer of Wham-O's first "professional model" flying disc. Aug. 12.

Larry Rivers, 78. Pop art pioneer who was also an actor, cartoonist, sculptor, filmmaker and teacher. Aug. 14.

Ted Ashley, 80. He catapulted Warner Bros. into a movie powerhouse in the 1970s with hits such as "The Exorcist" and "All the President's Men." Aug. 24.

William Warfield, 82. Acclaimed bass-baritone, sang "Ol' Man River" in the 1951 film version of "Show Boat." Aug. 25.

J. Lee Thompson, 88. Director whose more than 50 films included the original "Cape Fear," "The Guns of Navarone" and nine Charles Bronson movies. Aug. 30.

Lionel Hampton, 94. The vibraphone virtuoso and standout showman whose six-decade career ranked him with the greatest names in jazz. Aug. 31.

SEPTEMBER:

Ted Ross, 68. Won a Tony Award for his portrayal of the Cowardly Lion in "The Wiz." Sept. 3.

Cliff Gorman, 65. Won a Tony for portraying Lenny Bruce in 1971 play "Lenny." Sept. 5.

Kim Hunter, 79. Won a supporting Oscar in 1951 as the long-suffering Stella in "A Streetcar Named Desire" and appeared in "Planet of the Apes" movies. Sept. 11.

William Phillips, 94. Co-founder and longtime editor of the influential literary and political Partisan Review. Sept. 13.

Paul Williams, 87. Bandleader whose raucous 1948 R&B hit "The Hucklebuck" was a precursor to rock 'n' roll. Sept. 14.

James Gregory, 90. Played Inspector Luger on the TV show "Barney Miller." Sept. 16.

Joan Littlewood, 87. British director who led a working-class revolution on the London stage in the 1950s with "kitchen sink" dramas such as "The Quare Fella." Sept. 20.

Mickey Newbury, 62. He wrote Kenny Rogers' first hit, "Just Dropped In (To See What Condition My Condition Was In)." Sept. 29.

OCTOBER:

Walter H. Annenberg, 94. He parlayed America's love affair with television into a fortune by launching TV Guide magazine and later served as ambassador to Britain. Oct. 1.

Bruce Paltrow, 58. Producer-director of "St. Elsewhere," father of Gwyneth. Oct. 3. Cancer.

John Weitz, 79. Fashion designer who later became a novelist. Oct. 3.

Charles Guggenheim, 78. Documentary filmmaker whose works about civil rights, the Johnstown flood and Robert F. Kennedy won four Oscars. Oct. 9.

Teresa Graves, 54. She played the sassy undercover cop in the 1970s television drama "Get Christie Love!" Oct. 10. Fire.

Ray Conniff, 85. Grammy Award-winning bandleader known for lush arrangements of songs such as "Somewhere My Love." Oct. 12.

Walter Weiss, 80. Longtime maitre d' at Manhattan's "21" Club, the ultimate watering hole for the rich and famous. Oct. 12.

Stephen E. Ambrose, 66. Best-selling historian who made a career of offering a soldier's view of World War II. Oct. 13.

Keene Curtis, 79. Tony Award-winning actor who played Daddy Warbucks in "Annie" on Broadway. Oct. 13.

Norbert Schultze, 91. German composer whose song "Lili Marleen" struck a chord with World War II soldiers. Oct. 14.

Derek Bell, 66. Harpist for the Grammy-winning Irish folk band the Chieftains. Oct. 15.

Kam Fong, 84. He played Detective Chin Ho Kelly on the television series "Hawaii Five-0." Oct. 18.

Adolph Green, 87. Author and lyricist who, with longtime collaborator Betty Comden, wrote "On the Town" and the screenplay for the classic movie musical "Singin' in the Rain." Oct. 23.

Richard Harris, 72. Irish actor who gained fame as the roistering star of such 1960s films as "This Sporting Life" and "Camelot" and reached a new generation of fans as the wise old wizard in two Harry Potter movies. Oct. 25.

Tom Dowd, 77. Music producer and engineer who worked with legends like Ray Charles, Aretha Franklin, Eric Clapton and Otis Redding. Oct. 27.

Andre De Toth, about 90. Filmmaker who crafted gritty Westerns and hard-edged crime tales but was best known for directing the 3-D Vincent Price horror flick "House of Wax." Oct. 27.

Jam Master Jay (Jason Mizell), 37. Deftly scratching vinyl records in time with a beat, the rap DJ helped make Run-DMC the first hip-hop group to break into mainstream music. Oct. 30. Shot to death.

NOVEMBER:

Lonnie Donegan, 71. British musician ("Rock Island Line") whose folkie "skiffle" sound inspired John Lennon and Pete Townshend to learn to play guitar. Nov. 3.

Jonathan Harris, 87. He portrayed the cowardly antagonist Dr. Zachary Smith on the 1960's sci-fi show "Lost in Space." Nov. 3.

Vinnette Carroll, 80. First black woman to direct on Broadway and creator of the musical "Your Arms Too Short To Box With God." Nov. 5.

Johnny Griffith, 66. Keyboardist in the Funk Brothers, the studio band that played on numerous Motown hits. Nov. 10.

Billy Guy, 66. As part of the '50s vocal group The Coasters, he sang baritone on the rock hits "Searchin"' and "Yakety Yak." Nov. 12.

Eddie Bracken, 87. Master comic actor who starred in two of Preston Sturges' best films, "The Miracle of Morgan's Creek" and "Hail the Conquering Hero." Nov. 14.

James Coburn, 74. He rose to fame in action films ("The Magnificent Seven"), portrayed a tongue-in-cheek secret agent ("In Like Flint") and won an Academy Award decades later as an alcoholic father in "Affliction." Nov. 18.

Vernon Scott, 79. The colorful United Press International columnist who reported on Hollywood celebrities for half a century. Nov. 18.

Buddy Kaye, 84. Songwriter whose hits included "'A' — You're Adorable (The Alphabet Song.)" Nov. 21.

Noel Regney, 80. He wrote the holiday classic "Do You Hear What I Hear" and the 1963 No. 1 hit "Dominique." Nov. 24.

Karel Reisz, 76. The Czech-born film director who was a part of the British cinema's gritty 1960s renaissance and who later directed in the theater. Nov. 25.

Billie Bird, 94. She capped a long showbiz career playing sassy old ladies in comedies such as "Home Alone." Nov. 27.

DECEMBER:

Edward Latimer "Ned" Beach, 84. The onetime submarine captain wrote the best-selling undersea thriller "Run Silent, Run Deep." Dec. 1.

Edgar Scherick, 78. Film and television producer who helped bring "Peyton Place," the first prime-time soap opera, to the air. Dec. 2.

Mal Waldron, 77. He was Billie Holiday's pianist and wrote the jazz standard "Soul Eyes" for John Coltrane. Dec. 2.

Roone Arledge, 71. Endlessly creative ABC executive who ushered in the era of primetime sports, mentored top broadcasters and developed new ways to present the news. Dec. 5.