The Agriculture Department proposal announced Thursday applies to lunches subsidized by the federal government. The guidelines would require schools to cut sodium in those meals by more than half, use more whole grains and serve low-fat milk. They also would limit kids to only one cup of starchy vegetables a week, so schools couldn't offer french fries every day.
Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack said the new standards could affect more than 32 million children and are crucial because kids can consume as much as half of their daily calories in school.
"The United States is facing an obesity epidemic and the crisis of poor diets threatens the future of our children and our nation," Vilsack said Thursday.
While many schools are improving meals already, others are still serving children meals high in fat, salt and calories. The new guidelines are based on 2009 recommendations by the Institute of Medicine, the health arm of the National Academy of Sciences.
CBS News correspondent Michelle Miller reports that serving healthier food at schools can make a difference. The Cambridge School District in Massachusetts changed its meal plan and in three years, 40 percent of overweight kids dropped to a healthy weight.
"They eat better, they are healthier, they are more alert and have more energy," said Patricia Beggy, the principal of Cambridge Morse School.
The announcement comes just a few weeks after President Barack Obama signed into law a child nutrition bill that will help schools pay for the healthier foods, which often are more expensive.
The subsidized meals that would fall under the guidelines proposed this week are served as free and low-cost meals to low-income children and long have been subject to government nutrition standards. The new law for the first time will extend nutrition standards to other foods sold in schools that aren't subsidized by the federal government, including "a la carte" foods on the lunch line and snacks in vending machines. Those standards, while expected to be similar, will be written separately.
The announcement is a proposal, and it could be several years before the rules require schools to make changes.
The new USDA guidelines would:
- - Establish the first calorie limits for school meals.
- - Gradually reduce the amount of sodium in the meals over 10 years, with the eventual goal of reducing sodium by more than half.
- - Ban most trans fats.
- - Require more servings of fruits and vegetables.
- - Require all milk served to be low fat or nonfat, and require all flavored milks to be nonfat.
- - Incrementally increase the amount of whole grains required, eventually requiring most grains to be whole grains.
- - Improve school breakfasts by requiring schools to serve a grain and a protein, instead of one or the other.
Vilsack said the reduction in sodium will be gradual so school children can get used to less salty foods. He said the government wants the meals to be appealing so children will eat them.
"We are looking at ways these meals can be attractive and also be tasty," he said.
Some school groups have criticized efforts to make meals healthier, saying it will be hard for already-stretched schools to pay for the new requirements. Some conservatives, including former Alaska Gov. Sarah Palin, have said that telling children what to eat is a case of government overreach.
Vilsack says he understands the new standards may pose some challenges for school districts, but he believes they are necessary. He compares obesity and related diseases like diabetes to a truck barreling toward a child, and the new guidelines to a parent teaching that child to look both ways before crossing the street.
"You want your kid to be able to walk across the street without getting hit," he says.
According to the USDA, about a third of children 6 to 19 years old are overweight or obese, and the number of obese children has tripled in the past few decades.
The Agriculture Department also is planning to release new dietary guidelines for the general public, possibly as soon as this month. Those guidelines, revised every five years, are similarly expected to encourage less sodium consumption and more grains, fruits and vegetables