While Oklahoma is likely to maintain the nation's largest per capita population of Native Americans, their numbers are shrinking and the Hispanic population is booming.
Over the past decade, the number of Hispanics has nearly doubled from 179,304 in 2000 to 332,007 in 2010. Hispanics now account for 9 percent of the state's 3.75 million residents, compared to 8.5 percent for Native Americans.
"I'm surprised," said former state House of Representatives Speaker Larry Adair, chairman of the Cherokee Nation Gaming Commission. "I didn't realize we had that number of Hispanic people in Oklahoma."
Oklahoma's history has been linked to Native Americans decades before it gained statehood in 1907. It is home to dozens of sovereign tribes, many forced to leave their homes and move west along the so-called Trail of Tears in the 1830s. It's also the birthplace of iconic cowboy and humorist Will Rogers, a member of a prominent Cherokee Nation family who was born in Indian Territory that later became the state.
While the 85 percent population spike has allowed Hispanics to become the state's largest minority, the Native American population dropped from 391,949 in 2000 (11.4 percent of all Oklahoma residents) to 321,687 in 2010.
Adair said it just proves Oklahoma continues to be a "melting pot."
In the far western Oklahoma Panhandle, Hispanics drawn to the region by swine farms and other concentrated animal feeding operations comprise 36 percent of the population, according to the census figures.
More than 17 percent of the 580,000 residents of Oklahoma City, the state's largest city, now identify themselves as being of Hispanic descent while in Tulsa, the state's second largest city, 14 percent of its 392,000 residents say they are Hispanic. Lawton and Enid also recorded significant concentrations of Hispanic residents.
State lawmakers said the substantial increase in Hispanic residents, especially in south Oklahoma City, make it more likely than ever that they will be able draw new legislative voting districts with Hispanic majorities although proponents of anti-illegal immigration legislation may voice opposition.
State lawmakers attempted to draw a majority Hispanic congressional district on Oklahoma City's south side following the 2000 census, Adair said.