U.S. District Judge Jorge A. Solis announced the guilty verdicts on all 108 counts on the eighth day of deliberations in the retrial of the Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development, once the nation's largest Muslim charity.
The convictions finally handed the government a signature victory in its fight against terrorism funding following the collapse of last year's Holy Land trial and defeats in other cases nationwide. President George W. Bush personally announced the freezing of Holy Land's assets in 2001, calling the action "another step in the war on terrorism."
After Monday's verdict, family members showed little visible reaction until after the jury left. Several women sobbed loudly.
"My dad's not a criminal!" one nearly inconsolable woman said loudly. Court personnel told the family to calm her down, and as family members rushed her out of the courtroom, she said, "They treated him like an animal." She later returned.
Ghassan Elashi, Holy Land's former chairman, and Shukri Abu-Baker, the charity's chief executive, were convicted of a combined 69 counts including supporting a specially designated terrorist, money laundering and tax fraud.
Mufid Abdulqader and Abdulrahman Odeh were convicted on three counts of conspiracy, and Mohammed El-Mezain was convicted on one count of conspiracy to support a terrorist organization.
Holy Land was convicted on all 32 counts.
"I feel heartbroken that a group of my fellow Americans fell for the prosecution's fear-mongering theory," Elashi's daughter, Noor, said in a brief statement she read outside the courthouse late Monday. "This is truly a low point for the United States of America but this is not over."
She said she was proud of her father and said he was "paying the price" for saving lives.
"My dad was persecuted for his political beliefs. It's as pure and simple as that."
A sentencing date hasn't been scheduled yet, but the punishments could be steep. Supporting a terrorist organization carries a maximum 15-year sentence on each count; money laundering carries a maximum 20 years on each conviction.
Solis ordered the Holy Land leaders detained, citing the lengthy prison sentences they may face and their ties to the Middle East.
Holy Land was accused of giving more than $12 million to support the Palestinian militant group Hamas, which the U.S. designated as a terrorist organization in 1995. The seven-week retrial ran about as long as the original, which ended in October 2007 when a judge declared a mistrial on most charges.
Holy Land wasn't accused of violence. Rather, the government said the Richardson, Texas-based charity financed schools, hospitals and social welfare programs controlled by Hamas in areas ravaged by the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Prosecutors labeled Holy Land's benefactors - called zakat committees - as terrorist recruiting pools. The charities, the government argued, spread Hamas' violent ideology and generated loyalty and support among Palestinians.
It was a "womb to the tomb" cycle, prosecutor Barry Jonas told jurors during closing arguments last week.
Holy Land supporters told a different story. They accused the government of politicizing the case as part of its war on terror, while attorneys for the foundation said Holy Land's mission was philanthropy and providing much-needed aid to the Middle East.
They reminded jurors that none of the zakat committees are designated by the U.S. as terrorist fronts, and that Holy Land also donated to causes elsewhere, including helping victims of the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995.
"No one here is engaging in acts of terrorism," Theresa Duncan, attorney for Shukri Abu Baker, said during closing arguments.
Government officials raided Holy Land's headquarters in December 2001, shutting down what had been the nation's largest Muslim charity.
A chaotic courtroom scene ended last year's original trial, which lasted nearly two months and kept jurors deliberating 19 days. But they deadlocked on many counts, and when a judge polled the panel about other verdicts, some disavowed their vote.
The confusing finish led U.S. District Judge A. Joe Fish to declare a mistrial, and leaders of the defunct charity rushed outside to celebrate.
Observers last year panned the government for presenting a bloated case too complicated for jurors to follow. Prosecutors responded this year by dropping nearly 60 charges in the trial and tightening their narrative to jurors, even offering a kind of road map to help the panel follow the money.
But nearly 15 boxes of evidence wheeled into court on a flatbed still impressed the enormity of the case, as did the more than one hour Solis needed to read aloud the indictment.