Terms of the deal and the length of the contract were not released.
"I have a special connection with this team because in 2005 I won the World Series by Renault," Kubica said in a statement. "This gave me the chance to test with the team ... which led to my debut in Formula One."
The 24-year-old from Poland, who has driven for BMW Sauber since 2006, was a contender for last year's F1 championship.
Kubica got his break with BMW Sauber _ which announced it was abandoning the sport at the end of the season _ after replacing Jacques Villeneuve with six rounds of the championship to race. He showed his worth right away with a podium finish in his third race.
Thanks to an aggressive streak, Kubica landed on the podium seven times last season and challenged for the F1 title until the penultimate race. He picked up his first victory at the Canadian Grand Prix, where only a year earlier he'd walked away from a horrific crash.
"He has been on our radar as one of the most naturally talented drivers of his generation and he has delivered on that promise so it's great to have secured him," Renault team principal Bob Bell said. "Renault has high ambitions and hopes for the future of the team and we feel that Robert can play a big role in fulfilling them."
This season has been forgettable for Kubica, who has a best finish of fourth.
"I share with Renault a strong winning mentality and feel comfortable with their friendly and open attitude," Kubica said. "I'm highly motivated and optimistic that together we can be at the front of the grid next year and hopefully fighting for the world title."
Kubica's addition means Renault will have a revamped look from next season.
Renault hasn't challenged for the F1 title since Alonso's back-to-back titles in 2005 and '06. The team's reputation was recently damaged by a crash scandal that led to Flavio Briatore's indefinite ban from the sport.
Briatore ordered former driver Nelson Piquet Jr. to crash at the 2008 Singapore Grand Prix to improve Alonso's chances of victory.