Officials said all five were training at the Academy for Staff Development in Goochland County to become K-9 handlers.
The alleged activities occurred this summer at the kennel at Powhatan Correctional Center.
According to Powhatan Commonwealth's Attorney Robert B. Beasley Jr., one of the accused touched the male dog's genitals while the others videotaped the act.
An attorney representing one of the men said his client would plead not guilty. He described the alleged activities as hazing.