The spokeswoman declined to give further details on the action filed in Los Angeles Superior Court but the syndicated television program, Access Hollywood, said Cruise was citing irreconcilable differences and wanted joint custody of the couple's two adopted children.
The divorce action comes just two months after Cruise, 38, and Kidman, 33, renewed their marital vows in a romantic 10th wedding anniversary, according to an article to be published in the next issue of Us Weekly magazine.
Cruise and Kidman are the latest in a string of prominent Hollywood couples whose marriages have collapsed recently, including Alec Baldwin and Kim Basinger and Meg Ryan and Dennis Quaid.
Kidman and Cruise were wed on Christmas Eve, 1990, in a secret ceremony after meeting on the set of Days of Thunder, a racing car drama. They also starred in Far and Away and Stanley Kubrick's final film, the sexual thriller Eyes Wide Shut.
Cruise publicist Pat Kingsley and Kidman publicist Catherine Olam said there would be no comment from the couple.
Kingsley's announcement Monday that the Cruise/Kidman union was on the rocks came as a surprise.
"Citing the difficulties inherent in divergent careers, which constantly keep them apart, they concluded that an amicable separation seems best for both of them at this time," Kingsley said at the time.
Cruise starred in All the Right Moves, Born on the Fourth of July, Cocktail, The Color of Money, A Few Good Men, Jerry Maguire, Mission: Impossible, Rain Man, Risky Business and Top Gun.
Kidman, whose movie Moulin Rouge is scheduled for release this spring, spent three months in Spain last fall to film The Others. Cruise is one of the executive producers. Her movie credits also include Batman Forever, Malice and To Die For.