China's Gao Wins Literature Nobel

In this undated photo released by the Volusia County Branch Jail, Christopher Daniel Gay, 32, is shown. Gay, an escaped prisoner who evaded a manhunt across the Southeast by stealing three vehicles, including singer Crystal Gayle's tour bus, was arrested Friday, Jan. 26, 2007, authorities said.
Chinese writer Gao Xingjian won the Nobel Prize in Literature for 2000, the Swedish Academy said on Thursday.

Gao won the prize, worth nearly $1 million, for "an oeuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama," the academy said in its citation.

Gao, 60, is a political refugee and playwright whose works have not been performed in China since his work The Other Shore was banned in 1986, the Swedish Academy said. He left China a year after and lives in Paris, the citation said.

It described him as a novelist, translator, dramatist, director and critic.

Gao is the first Chinese writer to receive the prestigious literature prize.

"In the writing of Gao Xingjian literature is born anew from the struggle of the individual to survive the history of the masses," the academy said in its citation. "He is a perspicacious skeptic who makes no claim to be able to explain the world. He asserts that he has found freedom only in writing."

The literature award — usually the first — was the fifth and last Nobel prize unveiled in Stockholm this week. The Nobel Peace Prize winner will be named Friday in Oslo, Norway

Two Americans won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics on Wednesday for developing theories on how people work and live, contributing greatly to employment training programs and transportation and communication systems

James J. Heckman, 56, of the University of Chicago, and Daniel L. McFadden, 63, of the University of California at Berkeley, were cited for methods of analyzing statistics that have had wide-ranging practical applications, according to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

The physics prize was shared by American Jack Kilby, 76, who invented the integrated circuit at Texas Instruments in 1958, Herbert Kroemer, 72, of the University of California-Santa Barbara, and Zhores Alferov, 70, of the A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technico Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia

This year's chemistry prize went to Alan Heeger, 64, of the University of California-Santa Barbara, Alan MacDiarmid, 73, of the University of Pennsylvania and Hideki Shirakawa, 64, of the University of Tsukuba in Japan, for their discovery that plastic could be modified to conduct electricity

The medicine prize recognized Arvid Carlsson, 77, a professor emiritus of the University of Goteborg in Sweden, Paul Greengard, 74, of Rockefeller University in New York, and Eric Kandel, 70, an Austrian-born U.S. citizen with Columbia University in New York, for discoveries about how messages are transmitted between brain cells, leading to treatments of Parkinson's disease and depression

The Nobel Prizes are funded by a trust set up in the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite. Nobel said the literature prize should recognize an author whose work moves in an "ideal direction" without specifying exactly what e meant

Swedish King Carl XVI Gustaf will present the prizes as always on Dec. 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death in 1896

Nobel literature laureates since 1945:

    1999: Guenter Grass, German
    1998: Jose Saramago, Portuguese
    1997: Dario Fo, Italian
    1996: Wislawa Szymborska, Polish
    1995: Seamus Heaney, Irish
    1994: Kenzaburo Oe, Japanese
    1993: Toni Morrison, American
    1992: Derek Walcott, St. Lucian
    1991: Nadine Gordimer, South African
    1990: Octavio Paz, Mexican
    1989: Camilo Jose Cela, Spanish
    1988: Naguib Mahfouz, Egyptian
    1987: Joseph Brodsky, Russian-born American
    1986: Wole Soyinka, Nigerian
    1985: Claude Simon, French
    1984: Jaroslav Seifert, Czech
    1983: William Golding, British
    1982: Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Colombian
    1981: Elias Canetti, Bulgarian-born Briton
    1980: Czeslaw Milosz, Polish-born American
    1979: Odysseus Elytis, Greek
    1978: Isaac Bashevis Singer, Polish-born American
    1977: Vicente Aleixandre, Spanish
    1976: Saul Bellow, Canadian-born American
    1975: Eugenio Montale, Italian
    1974: Eyvind Johnson and Harry Martinson, both Swedish
    1973: Patrick White, Australian
    1972: Heinrich Boell, German
    1971: Pablo Neruda, Chilean
    1970: Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Russian
    1969: Samuel Beckett, Irish
    1968: Yasunari Kawabata, Japanese
    1967: Miguel A. Asturias, Guatemalan
    1966: Shmuel Y. Agnon, Polish-born Israeli, and Nelly Sachs, German-born Swede
    1965: Mikhail Sholokhov, Russian
    1964: Jean-Paul Sartre, French (declined award)
    1963: Giorgos Seferis, Greek
    1962: John Steinbeck, American
    1961: Ivo Andric, Yugoslav
    1960: Saint-John Perse, French
    1959: Salvatore Quasimodo, Italian
    1958: Boris Pasternak, Russia (forced to decline)
    1957: Albert Camus, French
    1956: Juan Ramon Jimenez, Spanish
    1955: Halldor Laxness, Icelandic
    1954: Ernest Hemingway, American
    1953: Winston Churchill, British
    1952: Francois Mauriac, French
    1951: Par Lagerkvist, Swedish
    1950: Bertrand Russell, British
    1949: William Faulkner, American (awarded in 1950)
    1948: T.S. Eliot, U.S.-born British
    1947: Andre Gide, French
    1946: Hermann Hesse, Swiss
    1945: Gabriela Mistral, Chilean

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