According to Los Angeles County Superior Court spokeswoman Kathy Roberts, Spears filed divorce papers Tuesday citing "irreconcilable differences" with Federline.
Spears, 24, married Federline, 28, in 2004. They have two children, Sean Preston, who is a year old, and another son, identified in the divorce papers as Jayden James, who was born on Sept. 12th of this year.
In the divorce papers, which do not mention a prenuptial agreement, Spears asks for custody of the couple's two children, with visitation rights for Federline. The filing does list as separate property, and thereby off-limits to Federline, "miscellaneous jewelry and other personal effects," earnings and other assets to be determined later.
Spears' declaration that she and Federline had no community assets indicate the pair had a prenuptial agreement and don't want to disclose to the court their divorce settlement, said Leon Bennett, a divorce attorney.
The court papers also state that the marriage occurred Oct. 6, 2004, a few weeks after a widely covered wedding ceremony.
Federline at that time explained the two ceremonies by saying that the couple had moved the wedding date up to throw off the media, but doing so did not give their lawyers time to finish their prenup.
Spears married Federline eight months after ending a 55-hour Las Vegas marriage to her childhood friend, Jason Alexander. Her second marriage has provided endless fodder for tabloids, which have speculated frequently that the union was in trouble.
Federline's attorney, Mark Vincent Kaplan, issued a statement declining comment.
"There is no statement at this time as requested by Mark's client, Kevin Federline," said Michael Sands, spokesman for Kaplan.
But in an interview with The Associated Press two weeks ago, Federline had nothing but praise for Spears.
"Her influence on me has been really big," he told the AP. "She's a strong woman and she knows what she wants out of life and that helps build a strong man. I look up to you baby."