Joel, 55, entered the clinic after suffering "a recent bout of severe gastrointestinal distress," spokeswoman Claire Mercuri told The New York Post for Wednesday editions.
Less than two years ago, in June 2002, the singer spent about two weeks at Silver Hill Hospital, a substance abuse and psychiatric center in New Canaan, Conn. He later said he entered the hospital because he had been abusing alcohol.
Joel has been involved in several car accidents in the past three years, though none has been linked to alcohol or drug use.
In 2002, shortly before entering Silver Hill, he escaped serious injury in a crash in East Hampton, N.Y.
Two other car accidents followed, including one in 2003 in which he smashed his car into a tree along a highway on far eastern Long Island. Last year, Joel escaped unhurt when he crashed into a house on Long Island.
Joel married 23-year-old Kate Lee on Oct. 2 at his Centre Island, N.Y., mansion. Joel, who was previously married twice, including to supermodel Christie Brinkley, has had more than two dozen Top 10 hits, including his signature song "Piano Man," which was released in 1973 and became a hit the next year.
In September, Joel's star was placed on Hollywood Boulevard in front of the Pantages Theatre, where the Tony Award-winning musical based on his songs, "Movin' Out," ended its run on Oct. 31. He is also a member of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.