The mass, open to the public, took place at Saint Michael's Catholic Church.
Actor Andy Garcia, who made a documentary film in 1993 about Cachao and produced several of his recordings, gave a eulogy in Spanish at the mass.
Garcia, who fondly - and respectfully - often referred to Cachao as "maestro," fought back tears during his speech.
The mass was more joyful, then solemn, befitting a man known for his exuberant music and upbeat personality.
Other music stars in attendance included Gloria and Emilio Estefan, trumpeter Arturo Sandoval, and vocalist Albita.
Hundreds attended the viewing Wednesday night for the Cuban bassist and composer. He died Saturday at age 89.
Known simply as Cachao, he was a key figure in the 1960s Latin jazz scene in New York, after he left communist Cuba.
The Grammy-winning musician had fallen ill in the past week and died surrounded by family members at Coral Gables Hospital, spokesman Nelson Albareda said.