His comments are not new but are seen as a challenge because they come just as U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton arrives in Moscow, where efforts to replace the START I treaty are on the agenda.
Lt. Gen Andrei Shvaichenko, the chief of the country's Strategic Missile Forces, was quoted by Russian news agencies Monday as saying the country will deploy RS-24 missiles.
Russia disputes U.S. claims that the missiles would violate the treaty.
Shvaichenko also warns the U.S. against refitting long-range missiles with conventional warheads.
Clinton arrives Monday, with her first meetings scheduled for Tuesday.