Teresa Amabile is probably Harvard Business School's leading authority on creativity, writing numerous groundbreaking studies on how it works, what is needed to foster it and what kills it. Turns out she was studying at Stanford, a mile down the road from PARC, in the mid 1970s, coming to know the key characters.
Writing on HBR.org, Amabile lists the three keys to fostering creatvity practiced at PARC.
- Smart people who think differently. "The first threat to business creativity is our endangered education system, with its downward trends in science and math, and its increasingly narrow focus on basic subjects. The four dozen people working at PARC were really smart, with two important kinds of smarts. First, they had deep expertise -- in computer science, optical science, and system dynamics, as well as broad acquaintance with seemingly unrelated fields... Second, the PARC inventors had creative smarts. Rather than getting trapped by what was already inside their heads, they voraciously consumed new information and combined it in ways no one had previously imagined."
- Passionate engagement. "My research has shown that people are most creative when they are on a mission, intrinsically motivated by a love for what they are doing. Robert Bauer and his colleagues found immense interest, enjoyment, satisfaction, and challenge in 'dreaming, proving and making things that had never been done before.' Indulging their passion was so exciting, and so much fun, that they worked their tails off."
- A creative atmosphere. "Like all great organizational cultures, this one started with a bold vision. PARC's founder, George Pake, was out to create 'the office of the future.' He and Bob Taylor, head of PARC's Computer Science Laboratory, built a near-perfect work environment for creativity: freedom to pursue passions, challenging goals, collaborative norms, sufficient time to really think, and the resources people needed to follow their dreams. Even the smartest, most passionate people won't thrive in -- or will soon abandon -- a work environment that stifles them. Most people who got into PARC never wanted to leave."
Does your company provide the right ingredients to foster creativity? What would you change about how your organization supports creative people?