Officials in Mishima City said the monkey slipped out of the government-run nature park it had been kept at since its capture last October when a keeper was cleaning its cage.
The city published an emergency notice urging residents to lock their doors, though no new attacks have been reported.
The fugitive monkey, known as "Lucky," is a type of macaque that is one of the most common wild mammals in Japan. They are considered a nuisance in rural areas, where they damage crops and steal food.
Lucky has proved a tough catch in the past, avoiding citywide monkey hunts during its previous two month biting spree.