Spyware created by a sophisticated group of hackers-for-hire took advantage of a flaw in the WhatsApp communications program used by more than 1.5 billion people worldwide to remotely hijack dozens of phones, the company said late Monday. The Financial Times identified the firm as Israel's NSO Group, and WhatsApp all but confirmed the identification.
WhatsApp described the hackers to CBS News as having "all the hallmarks of a private company that works with a number of governments around the world," adding to The Associated Press that they do so "to deliver spyware." A spokesman for the Facebook subsidiary later told the AP: "We're certainly not refuting any of the coverage you've seen."
WhatsApp also told CBS News, "We have made information available to U.S. law enforcement for further review. We may make additional information available as appropriate."
"WhatsApp encourages people to upgrade to the latest version of our app, as well as keep their mobile operating system up to date, to protect against potential targeted exploits designed to compromise information stored on mobile devices," the spokesman said to CBS News. "We are constantly working alongside industry partners to provide the latest security enhancements to help protect our users."
The malware was able to penetrate phones through missed calls alone via the app's voice calling function, the spokesman told AP. An unknown number of people – an amount in the dozens at least would not be inaccurate – were infected with the malware, which the company discovered in early May, said the spokesman, who was not authorized to be quoted by name.
In the past, NSO's spyware has repeatedly been found deployed to hack journalists, lawyers, human rights activists and dissidents.
John Scott-Railton, a researcher with the internet watchdog Citizen Lab, called the latest hack "a very scary vulnerability."
"There's nothing a user could have done here, short of not having the app," he said.
The spokesman said the flaw was discovered while "our team was putting some additional security enhancements to our voice calls" and that engineers found that people targeted for infection "might get one or two calls from a number that is not familiar to them. In the process of calling, this code gets shipped."
WhatsApp immediately contacted Citizen Lab and human rights groups, quickly fixed the issue and pushed out a patch. "We are deeply concerned about the abuse of such capabilities," WhatsApp said in a statement.
NSO said in a statement that its technology is used by law enforcement and intelligence agencies to fight "crime and terror."
"We investigate any credible allegations of misuse and if necessary, we take action, including shutting down the system," the statement said. A spokesman for Stephen Peel, whose private equity firm Novalpina recently announced the purchase of part of NSO, did not return an email seeking comment.
The revelation adds to the questions over the reach of the Israeli company's powerful spyware, which takes advantage of digital flaws to hijack smartphones, control their cameras and effectively turn them into pocket-sized surveillance devices.
NSO spyware was implicated in the gruesome killing of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi, who was dismembered in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul last year and whose body has never been found.
Several alleged targets of the spyware, including a close friend of Khashoggi and several Mexican civil society figures, are currently suing NSO in an Israeli court over the hacking.
Monday, Amnesty International – which said last year that one its staffers was also targeted with the spyware – said it would join in a legal bid to force Israel's Ministry of Defense to suspend NSO's export license.
That makes the discovery of the vulnerability particularly disturbing because one of the targets was a U.K.-based human rights lawyer, the attorney told the AP.
The lawyer, who spoke on condition of anonymity for professional reasons, said he received several suspicious missed calls over the past few months, the most recent one on Sunday, only hours before WhatsApp issued the update to users fixing the flaw.
In its statement, NSO said it "would not or could not" use its own technology to target "any person or organization, including this individual."