If all goes according to plan - and these are ambitious plans, to be sure - the U.S. will one day soon be able to use one big, honking computer. Make that an "exascale supercomputer," in the terms of the trade. The DARPA-ed program is designed find a way to overcome the limits of Moore's Law, postulated by Intel's co-founder Gordon Moore, which predicted that the number of transistors placed on an integrated circuit essentially doubles every couple of years. According to DARPA, the goal will be to build "an innovative, revolutionary new generation of computing systems that overcomes the limitations of current evolutionary approach."
You can read more about the project here from CNET.