In her first public remarks on the leaking of her identity to reporters three years ago, Plame told a news conference she trusted the government to protect her and that "a few reckless individuals within the current administration betrayed that trust. ... I'd much rather be continuing my career as a public servant than as a plaintiff in a lawsuit."
Said Wilson: "We are under no illusions about how tough this fight will be. But we believe the time has come to hold those who use their official positions to exact personal revenge accountable and responsible for their actions."
His wife said they decided to pursue the lawsuit with "heavy hearts."
"I feel strongly and justice demands that those who acted so harmfully against our national security must answer for their shameful conduct in court," Plame said.
In the suit filed Thursday in U.S. District Court, Plame and Wilson said that Cheney, Rove and Cheney's former chief of staff, I. Lewis Libby, leaked her CIA status to reporters to punish Wilson for criticizing the Bush administration's motives in Iraq.
Plame's identity as a CIA officer was revealed in a July 14, 2003, article by syndicated columnist Robert Novak. At the time, Plame's job as an operations officer was classified information. Novak's column appeared eight days after Wilson alleged in an opinion piece in The New York Times that the Bush administration had twisted prewar intelligence on Iraq to justify going to war.
Read Plame's court filing (23 pages).
The lawsuit accuses Cheney, Libby, Rove and 10 unnamed administration officials or political operatives of putting the Wilsons and their children's lives at risk by exposing Plame, who left the CIA in January and is writing a book about what's happened to her.
At Friday's news conference, Wilson noted he had written an op-ed criticizing the administration's defense of going to war in Iraq, saying "I exercised my civil duty to hold my government to account."
"This attack was based on lies and disinformation and it included the compromise of Valerie's identity," he added. "I have confidence in the American system of justice and this suit is about the pursuit of justice."
The CIA had sent Wilson to Niger in early 2002 to determine whether there was any truth to reports that Iraq had made a deal to acquire yellowcake uranium from the government of Niger to make a nuclear weapon. Wilson discounted the reports, but the allegation that Iraq was trying to buy uranium from Africa ended up in President Bush's 2003 State of the Union address.
Any court proceedings will likely be political as well as legal, CBS News legal analyst Andrew Cohen said.
"An early line of defense will be that the defendants have immunity from such lawsuits. Another line of defense will no doubt involve the assertion of executive privilege," he said. "It has the makings of being a long and nasty battle both in and out of court."
Mark Corallo, a spokesman for Rove, said, "Without even having had a chance to review the complaint, it is clear that the allegations are absolutely and utterly without merit."
Barbara Comstock, a Libby spokesman, declined comment.
Justice Department lawyers plan to review the lawsuit to determine how to respond, said Charles Miller, a department spokesman.
The Wilsons' lawyer said in the lawsuit that it "concerns the intentional and malicious exposure by senior officials of the federal government of ... (Plame), whose job it was to gather intelligence to make the nation safer and who risked her life for her country."
Instead of confronting Wilson on his criticism, the lawsuit said, the White House officials "embarked on an anonymous 'whispering campaign' designed to discredit ... (the Wilsons) and to deter other critics from speaking out."
The lawsuit alleges that Cheney, Libby and Rove "secretly spread rumors" that Plame used her position at the CIA to get her husband sent on the Niger trip. It accuses the White House officials of violating the Wilsons' constitutional rights to equal protection and freedom of speech. It also accuses the officials of violating the couple's privacy rights.
The civil lawsuit seeks unspecified damages, attorneys fees and costs.
Libby is the only administration official charged in connection with the leak investigation. He faces trial in January on perjury and obstruction-of-justice charges, accused of lying to FBI agents and a federal grand jury about when he learned Plame's identity and what he subsequently told reporters.
Special Counsel Patrick Fitzgerald told Rove's lawyer last month that he had decided not to seek criminal charges against Rove.