Social Welfare Secretary Corazon Soliman said 316 people were killed and 150 missing in Quezon province, about 40 miles east of Manila.
At least 32 people were killed in five other areas of the country, civil defense and other officials said.
Soliman said bad weather and roads blocked by landslides and submerged in floodwaters are hindering rescue efforts.
Last week a typhoon and another storm in the country's east killed at least 87 people and left 80 others missing.
Weather forecasters warn that another typhoon may hit the Philippines this week.