The New York Times is reporting many Division I schools are distorting their athletic participation numbers so they can remain compliant with Title IX.
The newspaper analyzed public records from more than 20 colleges and universities and federal participation statistics from all 345 institutions at the NCAA's highest level.
It found some schools were padding the rosters of women's teams with unqualified players, or counting athletes who no longer wanted to compete.
The New York Times also reported Tuesday that schools counted male practice players as women and trimmed the rosters of men's teams. According to the newspaper, Texas A&M and Duke are among the elite women's basketball teams that exploit a "federal loophole that allows them to report male practice players as female participants."
Title IX was passed in 1972. The landmark federal legislation is designed to create equal educational opportunities for men and women.
According to the Times, more than half of the women on the University of South Florida cross-country roster did not even run a race in 2009. And at Marshall University, the newspaper reports, three players were invited onto the women's tennis team even though they were not good enough to compete.
"Those of us in the business know that universities have been end-running Title IX for a long time, and they do it until they get caught," University of Miami president Donna E. Shalala told the Times.