According to a statement from Conyers, Rove's lawyer Robert Luskin informed the chairman that his client would not agree to testify voluntarily before the committee.
"It is unfortunate that Mr. Rove has failed to cooperate with our requests," Conyers said in a statement.
"Although he does not seem the least bit hesitant to discuss these very issues weekly on cable television and in the print news media, Mr. Rove and his attorney have apparently concluded that a public hearing room would not be appropriate. Unfortunately, I have no choice today but to compel his testimony on these very important matters."
The subpoena is for July 10.
If he appears, Rove is expected to face questions on the White House's role in the firing of nine U.S. attorneys in 2006 and the prosecution of former Democratic Gov. Don Siegelman of Alabama.