Weinberger pleaded guilty in July to 22 counts of health care fraud. He once ran a nose and sinus clinic in Merrillville, where prosecutors say he billed insurers and patients for procedures he didn't perform.
He vanished during a 2004 European vacation and was captured in December 2009 on an Italian mountainside, where authorities say he had been living in a tent.
The federal judge who sentenced Weinberger on Friday said he imposed a relatively lengthy sentence because Weinberger fled, and because of the trouble he caused his former patients and employees.
Weinberger apologized for his actions during Friday's hearing.