Inhabitants of the mostly Shiite Muslim city Tuesday started attacking members of Saddam's Baath Party and other Iraqi fighters, who responded by firing mortars at their own people, the British military said. The British, in turn, shelled the mortar positions and bombed Baath headquarters.
"The bunch of desperados who've lived above the law rule the roost in this dictatorship, this regime that Saddam Hussein has been running," said Lt. Col. Ronnie McCourt, spokesman for British forces in the Persian Gulf. "They're obviously resorting to desperate measures and trying to intimidate the population, and we are making certain that we neutralize them as quickly as possible."
There were also reports that coalition troops Wednesday morning had confronted militiamen trying to break out of the city, possibly fleeing from the rebellion.
The uprising came as the British tried to gain control of Basra and relieve the city's trapped civilian population of 1.3 million, which was fast running out of food and was in danger of outbreaks of cholera and diarrhea from contaminated water.
At first the British commanders delayed going into the city and capitalizing on the uprising, worried about killing civilians or having their men lured into house-to-house fighting, reports the Times of London. With U.S. armored divisions more than 100 miles away, advancing on Baghdad, 7th Armored Brigade, "the Desert Rats," were on their own.
But coalition forces have made no secret of their hopes to spur such uprisings in the strategic southern city.
"We are assessing the situation very carefully to see how we can capitalize on it and how we can assist," said British spokesman Group Capt. Al Lockwood.
During the battle for control of Basra, the Iraqis were firing artillery from the center of the city at British troops, said British spokesman Col. Chris Vernon, while the British confined their artillery to the city's outskirts, trying to identify clear military targets, especially tanks, and avoid civilian casualties. Basra could be a preview of the battle for Baghdad, he said.
U.S. warplanes also dropped satellite-guided bombs on central Basra, targeting military sites hidden in civilian buildings, according to British accounts.
Gunner Neil Hughes of the Royal Horse Artillery said the Iraqis were using civilians as shields. "There's some tanks refueling — five or six of them — but we couldn't engage them because they were right next to a built-up area, a hospital," he said.
On Tuesday night, thousands of Basra residents rampaged through the streets and set dozens of buildings ablaze, according to British reporters attached to military units.
"It appeared some of the population rose up and started attacking elements that are defending the city. These elements more and more as we're investigating them appear to be mostly criminal elements and ruling Baath party members," Lockwood said. "The attack from the local population obviously gave them cause for concern to the extent that they started mortaring them."
The exiled Iraqi National Congress opposition party called it a large uprising and said it involved fierce hand-to-hand combat and bayonets.
In a telephone interview with Al-Jazeera television, Iraqi Information Minister Mohammed al-Sahhaf denied there was an uprising in Basra.
"The situation is stable," he said. "Resistance is continuing and we are teaching them more lessons."
Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld said he was aware that Fedayeen guerrillas loyal to Saddam were infiltrating the city. But he said he was reluctant to encourage any uprisings.
"I guess those of us my age remember uprisings in Eastern Europe back in the 1950s when they rose up and they were slaughtered," he said. "We know there are people in those cities ready to shoot them if they try to rise up."
But he added: "Anyone who's engaged in an uprising has a whole lot of courage, and I sure hope they're successful."
During the 1991 Gulf War, Basra's Shiites rose up against Saddam's Sunni Muslim regime in Baghdad. Government forces crushed the rebellion, slaughtering thousands across the south.
"It is important that we give support to those people in Iraq who are rising up to overthrow Saddam and his deeply repressive regime," Prime Minister Tony Blair said Wednesday.
"I think that the way that we do that, and the timing of it, however, has to be left to the commanders on the ground. I think that's important because they will know the true facts of the situation.
"And we've got to be careful that we know we have the support in place able to help them before we encourage them to do things that may lead to their death."
The number of casualties in Basra was not immediately known. But the Arab TV network Al-Jazeera quoted Iraqi medics on Saturday as saying 50 people were killed in U.S. bombings there.
International relief agencies in phone contact with aid workers in the city expressed deep concern about the fate of trapped civilians.
"It's very alarming, very critical," said Veronique Taveau of the U.N. humanitarian office for Iraq.
The city's electricity was knocked out Friday during U.S.-British bombing. That in turn shut down Basra's water pumping and treatment plants. The U.N. Children's Fund estimated up to 100,000 Basra children under 5 were at immediate risk of severe disease from the unsafe water.
Once the harbor in Umm Qasr is cleared of mines, reports CBS News Correspondent Steve Knight in Kuwait City, aid shipments could start within a day or two.
"We want to bring the stuff in by sea to Umm Qasr," then truck it to Basra, said Vernon. "The priorities are actually water and medical."