SAN FRANCISCO Investigators have determined that Asiana Airlines Flight 214 was traveling "significantly below" the target speed during its approach and that the crew tried to abort the landing just before it smashed onto the runway. What they don't yet know is whether the pilot's inexperience with the type of aircraft and at San Francisco's airport played a role.
A day after the jetliner crash landed in San Francisco, killing two people and sending more than 180 to hospitals, officials said Sunday that the probe was also focusing on whether the airport or plane's equipment also could have malfunctioned.
CBS News aviation and safety analyst Mark Rosenker, a former NTSB chairman, said on "CBS This Morning" that investigators had already made "significant progress" because they have the cockpit recorders, eyewitnesses and they can talk to both crew members and pilots in the vicinity who had a front row seat to the crash landing.
"But there's a long way to go before they can really understand exactly what happened, why it happened and then make recommendations to prevent it from happening again," Rosenker said.
CBS News aviation and safety analyst Capt. Chesley "Sully" Sullenberger said the investigation could take 18 months.
"They're writing a nonfiction detective story that may be 900 pages," Sullenberger said on "CBS This Morning."
The South Korea government announced Monday that officials will inspect engines and landing equipment on all Boeing 777 planes owned by Asiana and Korean Air, the national carrier.
Also Sunday, San Mateo County Coroner Robert Foucrault said he was investigating whether one of the two teenage passengers killed actually survived the crash but wasrushing to aid victims fleeing the burning aircraft. Remarkably, 305 of 307 passengers and crew survived the crash and more than a third didn't even require hospitalization. Only a small number were critically injured.
Investigators said that the weather was unusually fair for foggy San Francisco. The winds were mild, too. During the descent, with their throttles set to idle, the pilots never discussed having any problems with the plane or its positioning until it was too late.
Seven seconds before the Boeing 777 struck down, a member of the flight crew made a call to increase the jet's lagging speed, National Transportation Safety Board chief Deborah Hersman said at a briefing based on the plane's cockpit and flight data recorders. Three seconds later came a warning that the plane was about to stall.
Two-and-a-half seconds later, the crew attempted to abort the landing and go back up for another try. The air traffic controller guiding the plane heard the crash that followed almost instantly, Hersman said.
While investigators from both the U.S. and South Korea are in the early stages of an investigation that will include a weekslong examination of the wreckage and alcohol tests for the crew, the news confirmed what survivors and other witnesses had reported: a slow-moving airliner flying low to the ground.
"We are not talking about a few knots" difference between the aircraft's target landing speed of 137 knots, or 157 mph (250 kph), and how fast it was going as it came in for a landing," Hersman said.
Pilots normally try to land at the target speed, in this case 137 knots, plus an additional 5 more knots, said Bob Coffman, an American Airlines captain who has flown 777s. He said the briefing raises an important question: "Why was the plane going so slow?"
The airline said Monday in Seoul that the pilot at the controls had little experience flying that type of plane and was landing one for the first time at that airport.
Asiana spokeswoman Lee Hyomin said that Lee Gang-guk, who was at the controls, had nearly 10,000 hours flying other planes but only 43 in the 777, a plane she said he still was getting used to flying. Another pilot on the flight, Lee Jeong-min, had about 12,390 hours of flying experience, including 3,220 hours on the 777, according to the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in South Korea. Lee was the deputy pilot, tasked with helping Lee Gang-guk get accustomed to the 777, according to Asiana Airlines.
Two other pilots were aboard, with teams of rotating at the controls.
However, Sullenberger cautioned that the the total number of hours flying may not be a factor. He pointed out that his first officer on the "Miracle on the Hudson" flight, Jeff Skiles, had never flown an Airbus before the flight - but he had extensive training and had captained many other airplanes.
"Everybody's new on an airplane at some point (in their career)," Sullenberger said.
During a televised news conference in Seoul, Asiana Airlines President Yoon Young-dooand said that the accident likely did not occur as a result of pilot error. He also said that error on the part of mechanics has "yet to be confirmed."
Sullenberger said a 2- or 3-pilot crew is always better than a single pilot because there are "check and balances" and certain protocols the crew must follow in the cockpit.
"We need to look at the human factors in every other way: Was their training adequate? Had they successfully completed it? What kind of policies and procedures did the airline give them to operate the airplane? Were they being properly supervised?" he said.