The victim was reportedly returning home from work early Sunday morning, on a bus in the Roxbury neighborhood, when the trio sized him up.
Officials say one female slapped the man in the head, and another searched him for money.
"One of the women puts her knee on top of his legs so he can't get up and takes the money from his pockets," MBTA Superintendent-in Chief Joseph O'Connor told CBS Boston.
Police say the third suspect tossed the bleach, contained in a water bottle, in the man's eyes.
"I've been told as a result of throwing the bleach in his face, he's having difficulty seeing," said O'Connor.
Officials released surveillance photos from the bus of the three suspects in the incident.
They're also urging anyone else who may have been a victim to come forward.
Police say one of the women was seen harassing other passengers on public transit earlier in the night.
"We do have incidents where we can obtain video and pictures. It's crucial for the public to come forward and help solve crimes," said O'Connor.