The high court on Monday refused to hear an appeal by Jefferson to throw out the indictment against him. The former Democratic congressman has argued that prosecutors trampled on his constitutional privileges as a lawmaker.
Jefferson was indicted in 2007 on multiple counts, including soliciting bribes and racketeering. Investigators raided Jefferson's home and found $90,000 in cash stuffed in a freezer.
A federal judge has set a May 26 trial date in Alexandria, Va.
Jefferson represented parts of New Orleans in Congress, but lost his re-election last year to Republican Rep. Anh "Joseph" Cao.
The case is Jefferson v. United States, 08-1059.