Although sighted by Christopher Columbus in 1493 and claimed for Spain, it was the Dutch who occupied the island in 1631 and set about exploiting its salt deposits.
The Spanish retook the island in 1633, but continued to be harassed by the Dutch.
The Spanish finally relinquished St. Martin to the French and Dutch, who divided it amongst themselves in 1648.
The cultivation of sugar cane introduced slavery to the island in the late 18th century; the practice was not abolished until 1848.
The island became a free port in 1939; the tourism industry was dramatically expanded during the 1970s and 1980s.
In 2003, the populace of St. Martin voted to secede from Guadeloupe and in 2007, the northern portion of the island became a French overseas collectivity.
Source: CIA World Fact Book
33,102 (October 2004 census)
creole (mulatto), black, Guadeloupe Mestizo (French-East Asia), white, East Indian
Roman Catholic, Jehovah's Witness, Protestant, Hindu
French (official language), English, Dutch, French Patois, Spanish, Papiamento (dialect of Netherlands Antilles)
The economy of Saint Martin centers around tourism with 85% of the labor force engaged in this sector. Over one million visitors come to the island each year with most arriving through the Princess Juliana International Airport in Sint Maarten. No significant agriculture and limited local fishing means that almost all food must be imported. Energy resources and manufactured goods are also imported, primarily from Mexico and the United States. Saint Martin is reported to have the highest per capita income in the Caribbean.
GDP - composition by sector:
Labor force - by occupation:
85% directly or indirectly employed in tourist industry
tourism, light industry and manufacturing, heavy industry
Imports - commodities:
crude petroleum, food, manufactured items
Imports - partners:
US, Mexico (2006)
euro (EUR); note - US dollar (USD) widely used
euros per US dollar - 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002)
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