The manual version of the hybrid Honda Insight tops the list of 2005 vehicles with 61 miles per gallon in the city and 66 mpg on the highway, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy said Thursday. Eight of the top 10 cars are made by Honda and Toyota; the other two are Volkswagens.
The Big Three U.S. makers fared well in some individual categories. The new Ford Escape hybrid is the most fuel efficient SUV, with 31 mpg on the highway, and the Ford Ranger is the most fuel efficient pickup with 29 mpg on the highway. Chevrolet makes the most fuel-efficient large sedan, the Malibu Maxx, as well as the most fuel efficient cargo and passenger vans.
The automatic version of the Dodge Ram pickup, which gets 12 mpg on the highway, was least fuel efficient vehicle in this year's survey. Luxury cars, including models from Lamborghini, Ferrari and Bentley, rounded out the list of the 10 least fuel-efficient vehicles.
The Mercedes G55 AMG, which gets 14 mpg on the highway, had the worst fuel economy among SUVs.
The EPA and the Department of Energy compile the annual list based on information from manufacturers. Fuel economy estimates are determined by averaging numbers from a specific set of tests.
EPA Administrator Mike Leavitt and Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham said the list is designed to help consumers make wise decisions.
"Fuel efficiency makes economic sense while improving the nation's energy security," Abraham said.
The Sierra Club criticized the list, saying it focuses too much attention on vehicles most Americans don't buy, such as the Bentley, and not enough attention on popular gas guzzlers like the Range Rover, which gets 16 mpg on the highway.
It also faulted the list for not considering some of the largest vehicles, such as the Hummer H2 and the Ford Excursion, because the law exempts vehicles that weigh more than 8,500 pounds from fuel economy standards.
"The auto industry should put technology to work so Americans can reduce our oil dependence, spend less at the pump and curb global warming," said Dan Becker, director of the Sierra Club's global warming program. "The Bush administration should be trumpeting new technology, not helping automakers hide their dirtiest vehicles."
Environmentalists also have said the EPA's tests are inaccurate and overstate fuel efficiency. The tests, which have been in use since 1985, continue to assume a national speed limit of 55 mph and don't take into account increasing congestion in cities.
EPA is planning to propose changes to its fuel economy tests in the coming year to more accurately reflect current conditions, said agency spokesman John Millett.
Numbers for 2005 models are listed:
Miles per gallon (city/highway)
1. Honda Insight (manual, hybrid) 61/66
2. Toyota Prius (hybrid) 60/51
3. Honda Insight (automatic, hybrid) 57/56
4. Honda Civic Hybrid (automatic, lean burn) 48/47
5. Honda Civic Hybrid (automatic) 47/48
1. Dodge Ram Pickup (2-wheel drive automatic) 9/12
2. Lamborghini L-147/148 Murcielago 9/13
3. Dodge Ram Pickup (2-wheel drive manual) 9/15
Lamborghini L-140/141 Gallardo 9/15
4. Bentley Arnage/Arnage LWB 10/14
5. Lamborghini L-147/148 Murcielago (automatic) 10/15
Two-Seater: Honda Insight (manual) 61/66
Minicompact: Mini Cooper (manual) 28/36
Subcompact: Volkswagen New Beetle (diesel, manual) 38/46
Compact: Honda Civic Hybrid (automatic, lean burn) 48/47
Midsize: Toyota Prius 60/51
Large sedan: Chevrolet Malibu Maxx 22/30
Small station wagon: Volkswagen Jetta (diesel) 36/47
Midsize station wagon: Volkswagen Passat (diesel) 27/38
Sport utility vehicle: Ford Escape HEV 36/31
Minivan: Honda Odyssey 20/28
Pickup: Ford Ranger/Mazda B2300 24/29
Cargo van: Chevrolet Astro/GMC Safari (2-wheel drive) 16/22
Passenger van: Chevrolet Astro/GMC Safari 16/21
Two-Seater: Lamborghini L-147/148 Murcielago 9/13
Minicompact: Aston Martin DB9 Volante 11/18
Subcompact: Maserati Coupe and Gransport 12/17
Compact: Bentley Continental GT 11/18
Midsize: Bentley Arnage 10/14
Large sedan: Bentley Arnage LWB 10/14
Small station wagon: Audi S4 Avant (manual) 15/21
Midsize station wagon: Mercedes E55 AMG 14/21
Sport utility vehicle: Mercedes G55 AMG 12/14
Minivan: Kia Sedona 16/22
Pickup: Dodge Ram 1500 9/12
Cargo van: (tie)
Chevrolet Astro/GMC Sierra (4-wheel drive) 14/17
Ford E150 Econoline (2-wheel drive) 14/17
Passenger van: Ford E150 Club Wagon 13/17