The nonbinding measure called for increased transparency in the shark trade and more research into the threat posed to sharks by illegal fishing.
It had been expected to pass easily, but the United States, the European Union and other supporters couldn't muster the two-thirds majority needed in Tuesday's vote.
Critics expressed concern the measure would hurt poor nations and could be handled by regional bodies instead.
The vote could be a bad omen for a two-week meeting that will include much more controversial marine proposals, including banning the export of Atlantic bluefin tuna, which is popular with sushi lovers.
THIS IS A BREAKING NEWS UPDATE. Check back soon for further information. AP's earlier story is below.
DOHA, Qatar (AP) - Surging demand for shark fin soup among Asia's booming middle classes is driving many species of these big fish to the brink of extinction, a marine conservation group said Tuesday.
Oceana, in a report released Tuesday at a U.N. endangered species meeting, found that up to 73 million sharks are killed each year, primarily for their fins. As a result, some populations have plummeted by as much as 83 percent, prompting the 175-nation Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, or CITES, to consider proposals at its two-week meeting in Doha to regulate the shark trade.
At least eight shark species including the scalloped hammerhead and the oceanic whitetip are being considered for CITES listing which would put some controls on their export.
"The global shark fin trade is driving the oceans to collapse," Courtney Sakai, a senior campaign director at Oceana, said in a statement. "Trade measures are the most direct way to ensure that the powerful economic incentives to catch sharks do not lead to their extinction."
Shark fin soup has long played central part in traditional Chinese culture, often being served at weddings and banquets. But demand for the soup has surged as increasing numbers of mostly Chinese middle class search for ways to spend their new found wealth.
Oceana estimated that Hong Kong alone imports 10 million kilos of shark fin each year from as many as 87 countries, with Spain, Singapore and Taiwan being the biggest suppliers. The shark fin industry is also a lucrative one, with a bowl of shark fin soup running as high as $100 and the fin itself costing $1,300.
Sharks are particularly vulnerable to overexploitation because they generally grow slowly and live long lives. Their relatively low reproductive rates mean their populations are slow to recover once overfished.
Along with sharks, delegates at the U.N. conference are considering more nearly four dozen proposals on a range of species from rhinos to polar bears. Later this week, they will debate a proposal from Monaco for an all-out ban on the export of Atlantic bluefin tuna, a contentious issue that has the countries of Asia and the West locking horns over a fish prized in sushi.