Russia had demanded such an accord after a 7-year-old Russian boy was last month alone on a one-way flight by his adoptive American mother in Tennessee, in Russia. American adoption officials also were horrified at the drastic action taken by the mother and angry about its possible repercussions.
Russian officials say they want more control over U.S. adoptions of Russian children and the living conditions those children face in the United States.
"We have reached agreement on all principal issues and have seen willingness to sign such an agreement," children's rights ombudsman Pavel Astakhov told reporters after U.S. and Russian officials met to discuss the pact.
The draft agreement is expected to be approved on Friday, and the deal should be signed within the next two months, he said.
The return to Russia of Artyom Savelyev, who is now 8, caused some officials to demand a freeze on foreign adoptions. Russia's parliament, however, defeated a motion Friday to suspend adoptions to the United States.
Astakhov confirmed on Wednesday that adoptions to the U.S. have not been "legally suspended" but said they are "effectively suspended" as Russian courts will not rule on adoption cases as long as there is uncertainly about the children's safety in that country.
Under Russian law, only a presidential act or legislation passed by the parliament can freeze foreign adoptions.
The new deal will make it obligatory for adoption agencies as well as adoptive parents to report on their child's health and living conditions, and to "open the door" for social workers to check the facts reported, Astakhov said.
Savelyev's adoptive mother refused to allow a social worker into the house less than a month before the boy was dispatched back to Russia a visit that could have prevented the boy's misfortunes.
Russia also has accepted a U.S. proposal to allow adoptions only through U.S.-accredited agencies, the ombudsman said. These agencies work in compliance with the Hague Adoption Convention, to which Russia, however, is not a signatory yet.
"This will be an extra guarantee that random people and random organizations will not be involved in such an important and delicate matter as adoption of Russian children in the United States," Astakhov said.
Some 1,800 Russian children were adopted in the United States last year, according to Russian officials. Some 3,000 U.S. families are estimated to be in various stages of adopting children now from Russia.
More on Russian Adoptions
Adopted Boy Sent Back to Russia: Was He Abused?
Russia Sends Mixed Signals on Adoption Freeze
Driver: Russian Boy Didn't Seem Mentally Ill
Petition Urges Russia Not to Halt Adoptions
Ambassador: Russian Boy "In Very Good Hands"
Adoption Scandal Abuse Probe
U.S. Adoptions from Russia
Officials to Visit Moscow to Discuss Adoptions