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List Of Winners Of Top Science And Research Medals

The winners of the 2008 National Medal of Science:

_Berni Alder, for developing computer methods useful for conceiving and executing experimental shock-wave simulations.

_Francis S. Collins, for his contributions to the fields of genetics and genomics in his own laboratory and as the leader of the Human Genome Project.

_Joanna S. Fowler, for her work in chemistry that involves the synthesis of medical imaging compounds and using them to study human neuroscience.

_Elaine Fuchs, for her use of cell biology and molecular genetics in mice to understand inherited diseases in humans and her research on the biology of skin and its disorders.

_James E. Gunn, for his design of telescopes and instruments in astronomy that helped create the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, which has cataloged 200 million stars, galaxies, and quasars.

_Rudolf E. Kalman, for helping achieve the moon landings and the Global Positioning System.

_Michael I. Posner, for using technology to understand the brain.

_JoAnne Stubbe, for her experiments that established the mechanisms of ribonucleotide reductases, polyester synthases and natural product DNA cleavers.

_J. Craig Venter, for his contributions to genomics, his contributions to public understanding of its implications for society, and his commitment to the clear communication of information.

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The winners of the 2008 National Medal of Technology and Innovation:

_Forrest M. Bird, for his inventions including the medical respirator and devices that helped launch modern-day medical evacuations.

_Esther Sans Takeuchi, for her development of the silver vanadium oxide battery that powers the majority of implantable cardiac defibrillators.

_John E. Warnock and Charles M. Geschke, for their technological contributions to desktop publishing and for their role in changing the way people use their computers.

_ IBM Corp., for the IBM Blue Gene supercomputer and its systems architecture that has yielded new science, unsurpassed speed and unparalleled energy efficiency.

Source: The White House