The $4.5 billion bill approved by the House 264-157 would expand a program that provides full meals after school to all 50 states. It would also try to cut down on greasy foods and extra calories by giving the government power to decide what kinds of foods may be sold in vending machines and lunch lines.
The first lady said in a statement after the vote that she was "thrilled" about House passage. She called the bill "a groundbreaking piece of bipartisan legislation that will significantly improve the quality of meals that children receive at school and will play an integral role in our efforts to combat childhood obesity."
The measure is the first significant increase in federal payments for school lunches in more than 30 years, repots CBS Radio correspondent Bob Fuss.
The bill passed unanimously in the Senate but was opposed by most Republicans in the House, who complained about the increased cost of food programs.
Even former Alaska Gov. Sarah Palin has weighed in, at a Pennsylvania school last month and calling efforts to limit junk food in schools a "nanny state run amok."
Democrats said the legislation is needed to stem rising health care costs due to expanding American waistlines and to feed hungry children in tough economic times. The bill would increase eligibility for school lunches, expand summer feeding programs and provide money to serve the more than 20 million additional after-school meals annually. Most states now only serve after-school snacks.
The legislation would increase the amount of money schools are reimbursed for free lunches by 6 cents a meal, a priority for schools that say they don't have enough money to serve the meals.
The new nutrition standards would be written by the Agriculture Department, which would decide which kinds of foods may be sold and what ingredients can be used on school lunch lines and in vending machines.
The new standards would likely keep popular foods like hamburgers and pizza in school cafeterias but make them healthier, using leaner meat or whole wheat crust, for example. Vending machines could be stocked with less candy and fewer high-calorie drinks.
Bake sales and other school sponsored fundraisers that sell unhealthy foods could also be limited under the legislation, which only allows them if they are infrequent. The Agriculture Department would determine how often they could be held.
Some public school organizations have criticized the bill, saying they are concerned it will set new requirements without providing enough money to carry them out.
"This will just add a new burden for schools to pay for another unfunded mandate at a time when there are critical budget shortfalls," said Anne L. Bryant, executive director of the National School Boards Association.
The Senate passed the legislation in August. Republicans attempted to send the bill back to the Senate on Wednesday - instead of straight to President Barack Obama - by using a procedural maneuver to try and amend it with language that would require background checks for child care workers.
Democrats said the amendment was an attempt to kill the bill in the last few weeks of the congressional session because there would be no time for the Senate to pass it again and send it back to the House. They avoided the Senate detour and gave members of their party cover by passing the background checks in a separate bill Thursday.
The child nutrition bill stalled in September when some liberal Democrats opposed it because it is partially paid for with $2.2 billion in future dollars for food stamps. But those Democrats dropped their opposition after Republicans made large gains in the November elections and the White House promised to find a way to restore the money.