Jason Beckman is accused of shooting Jay Beckman to death with a shotgun in the shower on Easter Sunday.
Police originally arrested Jason Beckman on a charge of manslaughter.
Last week, a grand jury handed down the indictment on the first-degree murder charge, according to the county clerk's website.
Beckman is being held at a Miami-Dade County jail.
Jason Beckman told police he was trying to show his father that he had assembled the gun when it accidentally discharged.
In the days following the shooting, classmates at South Miami High School told The Miami Herald that Beckman has said he hated his father and often talked about killing him.
Beckman, who was diagnosed with a mild form of autism that left him largely unable to make close friends, also kept in his backpack a list of people who angered him, friends said.
The list had different levels, from kids who angered him but could easily redeem themselves.
The worst level, a classmate said, was reserved for his father.