Facing a political showdown with Democrats and Republicans alike, Mr. Bush was unyielding on Iraq in his annual State of the Union address. He also sought to revive his troubled presidency with proposals to expand health insurance coverage and to slash gasoline consumption by 20 percent in a decade.
Democrats — and even some Republicans — scoffed at his Iraq policy. Unmoved by Mr. Bush's appeal, Democrats said the House and Senate would vote on resolutions of disapproval of the troop buildup.
"We need a new direction," said freshman Sen. Jim Webb, picked by the Democrats to deliver their . "The majority of the nation no longer supports the way this war is being fought; nor does the majority of our military," said Webb, a Vietnam veteran opposed to Mr. Bush's invasion of Iraq.
Republican Sen. Norm Coleman of Minnesota, also took issue with Mr. Bush. "I can't tell you what the path to success is, but it's not what the president has put on the table," he said.
It was a night of political theater as the president went before the first Democratic-controlled Congress in a dozen years with his lowest approval ratings in polls.
A CBS News poll conducted by Knowledge Networks immediately after the speech found that 82 percent of viewers generally approved of the president's proposals while 18 percent disapproved. However, 68 percent of viewers said Mr. Bush will not be able to accomplish his goals, while 32 percent think he will.
Mr. Bush rallied some support for his Iraq plan among those who watched the speech, according to the poll. Before the State of the Union, 43 percent of them backed the plan, while 52 percent of them supported it after the speech.
"This was a much better speech and a much better argument for his position than he made when he made the speech announcing the troop increase two weeks ago," CBS News chief Washington correspondent Bob Schieffer said. "But frankly, it comes down to this: If the president is right on this, this is going to be seen as a great profile in courage. If he's wrong, it will be seen as something much different."
With debate over the Iraq war sending Republicans scurrying away from the president, Mr. Bush's job approval rating stood at a new low of 28 percent in the .
Democratic Speaker Nancy Pelosi of California, the first woman to lead the House, sat over Mr. Bush's shoulder, next to Vice President Dick Cheney. Reaching out to the Democrats, the president opened with a tribute to Pelosi and paused to shake her hand. He also asked for prayers for South Dakota Democratic Sen. Tim Johnson, hospitalized for more than a month after suffering a brain hemorrhage, and Republican Rep. Charlie Norwood of Georgia, who's suffering from cancer.
The speech audience included up to a dozen House and Senate members who have announced they are running for president in 2008 or are considered possible contenders.
Mr. Bush divided his speech between domestic and foreign issues, but the war was topic No. 1.
Pelosi set the tone for Democrats. She sat silently and did not applaud as Mr. Bush warned of high stakes in Iraq and said American forces must not step back before Baghdad is secure.
With Congress poised to deliver a stinging rebuke on his troop increase, the president made a personal plea to lawmakers.
"I have spoken with many of you in person. I respect you and the arguments you made," Mr. Bush said. "We went into this largely united, in our assumptions and in our convictions. And whatever you voted for, you did not vote for failure."
"Our country is pursuing a new strategy in Iraq and I ask you to give it a chance to work," he said. "And I ask you to support our troops in the field and those on their way."
The president said the Iraq war had changed dramatically with the outbreak of sectarian warfare and reprisals.
"This is not the fight we entered in Iraq, but it is the fight we are in," he said. "Every one of us wishes that this war were over and won. Yet it would not be like us to leave our promises unkept, our friends abandoned and our own security at risk.
"Ladies and gentlemen: On this day, at this hour, it is still within our power to shape the outcome of this battle," the president said. "So let us find our resolve and turn events toward victory."