Kafeel Ahmed, 27, had been in the hospital for a month with burns from the alleged attack on June 30, which followed a day after two failed car bombings in London. The other man in the car, Iraqi doctor Bilal Abdullah, has been charged with conspiring to set off explosions.
"We can confirm that the man seriously injured during the course of the incident at Glasgow airport on Saturday June 30 has died in Glasgow Royal Infirmary," said a spokesman for Strathclyde Police, speaking on condition of anonymity in line with force policy.
Ahmed, an Indian national from Bangalore, was burned on 90 percent of his body and had been in a coma throughout his hospital stay. He had been kept under armed guard at a burns unit.
Kafeel Ahmed's brother, Sabeel Ahmed, 26, also faces trial after being charged with withholding information that could prevent an act of terrorism. He was arrested in Liverpool on the day of the Glasgow attack. Jordanian doctor Mohammed Jamil Asha is the other man facing charges over the botched attacks.
Mohamed Haneef, the 27-year-old cousin of the Ahmed brothers, was arrested and charged in Australia over the attacks. But he was released after police were forced to admit they did not have enough evidence to hold him.
Early reports said that Kafeel Ahmed, like the other suspects, had been a medical worker. But Indian officials said he was an engineer with a doctorate in design and technology.