Although President Bush's speech contained a couple moments of touching unity — including introducing an Iraqi human rights advocate, Safia Taleb al-Suhail — but CBS News Chief White House Correspondent John Roberts described the feeling in congress filled with partisan tension at times.
"At a couple of points in this address it looked more like the British Parliament than the U.S. Congress," Roberts said immediately after. "When he said Social Security would expire in 2042, you heard democrats shouting 'No.'" Talking back to the president is almost unheard of in a formal address.
The prime-time address offered center stage to the president, as well as to the Democrats, who offered a post-address rebuttal. Democrats are hoping their response will cast them as a moderate but energetic alternative to Bush and the Republicans who control Congress.
"We all know that the United States cannot stay in Iraq indefinitely and continue to be viewed as an occupying force," said House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, in the response she delivered after Mr. Bush's remarks.
"Neither should we slip out the back door, falsely declaring victory but leaving chaos," said Pelosi, D-Calif. "We have never heard a clear plan from this administration for ending our presence in Iraq."
Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid, who was sharing the response with Pelosi, said Mr. Bush's Social Security plans sound more like "Social Security roulette" than reform.
"Democrats are all for giving Americans more of a say and more choices when it comes to their retirement savings. But that doesn't mean taking Social Security's guarantee and gambling with it. And that's coming from a senator who represents Las Vegas," said Reid, D-Nev.
Reid said Mr. Bush should join Democrats in fighting for better job training, improved education and more affordable health care. Instead, he said, Bush has offered "the same old ideology."
According to the U.S. census bureau, after Mr. Bush's first term, 4.3 million more Americans are now in poverty.
Such issues "are about old-fashioned moral values that don't get talked about much in Washington," Reid said.
The comments seemed to underscore Democratic attempts to attract the segment of Americans who have told pollsters that morality is a major factor in how they vote.
"We can make sure America lives up to its legacy as a land of opportunity if the president is willing to join hands and build from the center," Reid said.
Pelosi spoke of having met with U.S. troops in Iraq and Afghanistan and wounded soldiers in military hospitals.
"They remind us of our responsibility to build a future worthy of their sacrifice," she said.
Rep. Charles Rangel, D-N.Y., said President Bush "did not mention how many more lives will be lost because we still have no timetable for leaving Iraq. And he did not mention how his plans for Social Security dramatically cut benefits across the board and make the challenge worse."
In addition to their leaders' televised response, House Democrats were inviting about 15 constituents — including senior citizens — to the House galleries to demonstrate their opposition to Bush's Social Security plans. They also planned a news conference Thursday at a memorial to Social Security's father, President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Reaching out to Hispanics, Sen. Jeff Bingaman, D-N.M., and Rep. Robert Menendez, D-N.J., were delivering a Spanish-language response to Mr. Bush's address Wednesday night.
Besides re-electing Mr. Bush, the Nov. 2 voting increased the small but decisive majorities Republicans hold in Congress. The GOP also ousted one of the most visible Democrats, Senate Minority Leader Tom Daschle, D-S.D.
That has left the lower-profile Pelosi and Reid among the party's leaders and forced Democrats to ponder what course will best help them regain House and Senate seats.
Many in the party think Mr. Bush has given Democrats a golden opportunity with his idea of letting beneficiaries divert some Social Security revenues to new personal investment accounts, and borrowing money to pay the extra costs.
"The president neither has the mandate he thinks he has, or a majority to make policy" because of worries by moderate Republicans, said Rep. Rahm Emanuel, D-Ill. "He's making a mistake on both, which is overreaching."
Even so, Democrats were volunteering few detailed alternatives to Mr. Bush proposals. Reid told reporters that without a specific White House blueprint for overhauling Social Security, he saw no need for Democrats to offer "a counterplan to nothing."
In the excerpts of their responses, Reid and Pelosi accused Mr. Bush of failing to develop a plan for protecting the country from terrorism and said Democrats wanted more health, education and job training benefits for veterans.
Mr. Bush was planning a two-day campaign-style swing, beginning Thursday, to sell his Social Security plan in states with Democratic senators from whom he hopes he can win support.