570 A.D.
The Prophet Mohammed is born in Mecca. During the first 40 years of his life he marries a rich widow. They have a daughter, Fatima, who marries the warrior Ali.
Mohammed receives his first revelation from the angel Gabriel and begins his prophetic mission to create a new religion.
1759 illustration of Mecca by calligrapher Attarzadu
Mohammed captures Mecca.
The Hijra - or migration - takes place with Mohammed fleeing Mecca with his followers and moving north to Medina, where an Islamic community is established and the Muslim lunar calendar is created. Six years later, the Treaty of Hudaybiyya gives Muslims the right to make the pilgrimage to Mecca.
Holding up the Quran
After completing his final pilgrimage, the Prophet Mohammed dies. His revelations are written down and become the Quran.
Omar - the second caliph, or successor to the prophet, of the four Patriarchal Caliphs of Islam - heads the Muslim community during the Golden Age of Islamic religion. Many Muslim religious and political institutions rise to be models for future generations and organization is introduced to Arabian society.
Wall of old Jerusalem
Jerusalem comes under Muslim rule.
A Shi'ite revolt within Islam is brutally suppressed at the Battle of Kabala. Shi'ites, typically a faction of Islam oppressed by the majority Sunnis, view this event as the most important in their history and it makes martyrdom a large part of their religion.
Dome of the Rock
Adb al-Malik builds the Dome of the Rock on Temple Mount in the eastern side of Old Jerusalem. The Dome - the third most holy place in Islam - is where Mohammed is said to have ascended to heaven.
700 - 1000
Islamic rule and influence spread to parts of Spain, China and Africa.
Oct. 10, 732
Map of the Battle of Tours
A French army defeats a larger, more powerful Muslim army from Spain in the Battle of Tours in France. This shifts the tide of the Islamic invasion of western Europe and the destruction of Christianity.
Pope Urban II
At the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II launches the First Crusade in reaction to the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Four years later, Crusaders take Jerusalem and the Christian kingdom of Jerusalem is established.
The Quran is translated into Latin for the first time.
An old manuscript on the Battle of the Horn of Hattin
Crusaders are defeated at the Battle of the Horn of Hattin and Jerusalem returns to Islamic rule. Thirteen years later, Islam spreads to southeast Asia as well.
Painting of Osman I
Ottoman rule begins in Bithynia under Osman I. The Ottoman Empire grows and becomes the dominant power in the Islamic world.
Mehmet the Conqueror of the Ottoman Empire captures Constantinople and puts an end to the Byzantine empire. The Ottomans conquer much of eastern Europe and nearly the whole of the Arab world in the next 200 years.
The Spanish Inquisition in Spain begins and within 11 years Ferdinand and Isabella conquer Granada, ending nearly 800 years of Muslim rule in Spain.
Muslim women stage a peaceful protest in Java
Islam spreads to Java, the Moluccas and Borneo. The Muslim kingdom of Aceh in Sumatra begins.
A campaign of converting Muslims to orthodox Christianity - started under Peter the Great - reaches its climax. Mosques and Quranic schools in Central Asia are destroyed.
Al-Manar is published in Cairo, as a journal of reforming Muslim opinion.
Early 20th Century
In Southeast Asia, several Islamic groups emerge to safeguard the political rights of Muslims. For example, the Muslim League in India, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and the Arab League are all founded in an attempt to protect Muslim political belief and expression.
Kamal Ataturk
Following Turkey's defeat in World War I, Kamal Ataturk - the country's new ruler - abolishes the Ottoman Empire after six centuries of power.
The Muslim state of Pakistan is formed after the partition of British India. Violence mars independence as war breaks out between India and Pakistan. Two years later, the British Palestine mandate ends and the United Nations sanctions partition of the region and establishment of a Jewish state, Israel, and a Palestinian state. War breaks out and Israel occupies the Palestinian territory.
A mujahedeen fighter sits on his horse
A Muslim resistance movement, the mujahedeen, is organized and thousands of Afghanis flee to Pakistan.
A masked Palestinian attends a demonstration
The Intifada movement, an Arabic term meaning uprising, begins among Palestinians against Israel's military rule of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.