Urban Warfare

3) Helicopters
Used mainly for troop movement, surveillance and fire support. Vulnerable to rocket-propelled grenades. Tall objects on the ground, such as towers or telephone polls, can complicate low-altitude flying and landing.

4) Target restrictions Targeting is complicated by the proximity of restricted buildings, such as schools and places of worship.

5) Sweeping buildings Rooftop entry allows any enemy personnel inside to be flushed out to the street, where they are vulnerable, rather than face a desperate standoff. Also, ground entrances are likely locations for booby traps.

6) "High" priority Securing tall buildings can be useful for surveillance purposes and planting radio transmitters for wireless communications.

7) Buildings Pose several problems. They offer snipers concealed points from which to shoot. There is also a danger of falling debris or collapse. Areas of dense development can interfere with radio communications.

8) Tank-infantry coordination Because tank crews have a limited field of vision, soldiers on foot act as eyes and ears, directing movement and assigning targets. Forces must rely on nonverbal signals if radio communication is hindered by intense noise or other factors.

9) Tanks and armored vehicles
Stay close to one side of the street when possible, providing cover for the opposite side.

10) Tank positions Can be taken inside buildings to provide fire support from a protected location. Tanks can also create smoke screens to conceal troop movements.

11) Smaller armored vehicles Provide support on streets too narrow or too littered with rubble for tanks to pass.

12) Rear tanks
Fill in to secure advancing positions. Increased distance from targets allows them to shoot higher than forward armor, since tanks’ main guns have a limited trajectory.

Source: The Associated Press